We can see that in 1870 only one in four people in the world attended school, and this meant that only one in five were able to read. And global inequalities in access to education were very large. Today, in contrast, the global estimates of literacy and school attendance are above 80, and the inequality between world regions while still existing is much lower. We can see that two centuries ago only a small elite of the world population had the ability to read and write the best estimate is that 12 of the world population was literate. Over the course of the 19th century global literacy more than doubled. And over the course of the 20th century the world achieved rapid progress in education. More than 4 out of 5 people are now able to read. Young generations are better educated than ever before.
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This visualization shows the ratio of the literacy rate between young women and men around the world. I.3 Numeracy Increasing numeracy skills over the long run Numeracy is the ability to understand and work with numbers. The visualization below shows how this basic ability became more common in populations around the world based on a very basic definition of numeracy, the ability to correctly state one's own age. Numeracy skills today compared to the data on literacy we have less information on numeracy skills in the world today. Some information comes from about piaac, the oecd's survey of the skills of adults. A world map of these scores can be found here. The scatter plot shows how adults in oecd countries scored in the literacy and numeracy dimension. We see that the two aspects are closely correlated, those countries that have high literacy also have high numeracy. Piaac is only available for the very recent past, but it can still give us some insights of how numeracy skills in the world have changed. If we compare the numeracy scores of the young cohort with the older cohort in a scatterplot we find that in most countries numeracy skills have recently increased. Correlates, determinants and Consequences The visualization below shows, in two panels, a side-by-side comparison of long-term trends in school attendance and literacy.
And in legs some countries the gaps are dramatic. In Algeria, for example, the literacy rate among the youth (15-24 years) is close to 97; while it is 28 among the older population (65 years). In the chart below you can use the slider at the bottom to check how these generational gaps have been changing in recent decades. You can see that throughout Africa the changes have been mainly horizontal (i.e. Gaps have been widening as there have been radical recent improvements specifically benefiting the younger population). This is in contrast to richer regions, such as Europe, where the expansion of education started earlier and as a consequence changes have been mainly vertical (e.g. In Portugal the literacy rate among the youth was already high in 1980; so continued education expansion has meant that literacy rates are today almost equally high across the entire portuguese population ). Literacy by sex The visualization below shows that particularly in many poorer countries the literacy rate for young women is lower than the rate for young men. This chart shows the literacy rate by sex over time.
As it can be seen, in the majority of nations there is a large difference in literacy rates across generations (you can change the map to show literacy rates for different groups by clicking on the corresponding buttons at the top). These large differences across generations point to a global trend: the high literacy rate long among the youth indicates that as time passes, the literacy rate for the overall population will continue to increase. World maps of the literacy rate by age group our World in Data, with data from unesco 9 Full screen view Open in new tab Download Data download the 2 world maps showing the literacy of the older and the younger generation Northern Africa and. The visualization below shows specifically how remarkably large these differences are in Northern Africa and the middle east. Using unesco data, these maps show that in many countries in these regions, only less than a third of the older generation is literate while in contrast, more than 90 of the younger generation is literate. The following scatter plot emphasises the point already london made. As you can see, younger generations are more likely to be literate than older generations around the world.
Despite these improvements, however, there is still a wide disparity between nations. Here you can see that, at the turn of the 21st century, half of the population in poor countries such as haiti remains illiterate. This motivates the next visualization, where we discuss cross-country heterogeneity in more detail. Adult illiteracy rates in Latin America, our World in Data, with data from Oxlad 8 Full screen view Download Data Global literacy is higher than ever but important challenges remain The following interactive map shows literacy rates around the world, using recent estimates published. As it can be seen, all countries outside Africa (with the exception of Afghanistan) have literacy rates above. Despite progress in the long run, however, large inequalities remain, notably between sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. In Burkina faso, niger and south Sudan the African countries at the bottom of the rank literacy rates are still below. In most countries there are large generational literacy gaps favouring the young to assess the extent to which progress can be expected in the years to come, it is convenient to break down literacy estimates by age groups. The following map, using data from unesco, shows such estimates for most countries in the world.
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Here we want to provide evidence of how inequality in literacy, specifically, has been going down. The following visualization shows literacy by age group for different country groups. The left panel corresponds to 1980, and the right panel to 1995. We can see that all regions made substantial progress across the board so the series in 1995 are much more compressed towards the top than in 1980. We can also see that younger generations are progressively better educated than older generations. And it is particularly promising that this intergenerational change is happening especially quickly in the least educated regions of our world: notice how the slopes of the lines in the least educated countries become progressively steeper.
We come back to an analysis of intergenerational literacy gaps below. In Sub-Saharan Africa in 1995, for example, the literacy rate for the youngest population group was more than three times higher than that for the oldest population group. It may pet seem obvious, but it is still worth pointing out that in all the statistics shown here we have never seen a reversal of this positive development. Literacy by age group for different country groups, 19 unesco 7,.2 Recent developments, latin America has made huge improvements in literacy in the last century. As pointed out above, europe pioneered the expansion of basic education but global literacy rates only started really climbing in the second half of the 20th century, when the expansion of basic education became a global priority. Here we present evidence of important recent achievements in Latin America, where literacy has dramatically increased in the past century. As it can be seen, many nations have gained 40-50 percentage points in literacy during this period.
Here we use historical estimates from England a country that was very much at the center of the development of modernity to show how the process towards universal literacy took place. Specifically, the following graph from Clark (2008) 4 shows how modernization characterized by science, technological progress, freedom and tolerance was enabled by improving the education of ever-larger shares of the population. It also shows how this process of expansion led to a reduction in education gender inequality. Literacy in England, Clark (2008) 5, in the us, the expansion of literacy helped reduce within-country inequalities. The expansion of literacy in early-industrialized countries helped reduce within-country inequalities. In the preceding visualization we showed that England virtually closed literacy gender gaps by 1900.
Here we provide evidence of literacy gaps across races in the. The following visualization shows illiteracy rates by race for the period. As we can see, in order to reach near universal levels of literacy, the us had to close the race gap. This was eventually achieved around 1980. Percentage of persons 14 years old and over in the us who were illiterate by race, our World in Data, with data from nces 6, the global expansion of literacy has helped reduce inequalities both within and across countries. In our entry on, financing Education, we show that an important consequence of the global education expansion is a reduction in education inequality across the globe.
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And the rate of growth really climbed after the middle of the 20th century, when the expansion of basic education became a global priority. You can read more about the expansion of education systems around the world in our entry. When did literacy start growing in Europe? The following visualization shows the spread of literacy in Europe since the 15th century, based on estimates from Buringh and Van Zanden (2009). As it can be seen, the rising levels of education in Europe foreshadowed the emergence of modern societies. Particularly fast improvements in literacy took place across Northwest Europe in the period. As we discuss below, widespread literacy is considered a legacy of the Age of Enlightenment. Literacy rates around the world from the 15th century to present our World in Data, with data from various sources 3, full screen view, lined download Data, the ambition of universal literacy in Europe was a reform born of the Enlightenment. We have already pointed out that Northwest Europe made significant improvements in literacy in the period.
In Niger, for example, the literacy rate of the youth (15-24 years) is only.5. Empirical view,.1 Historical Perspective, global literacy has grown relationship substantially in the last two centuries. While the earliest forms of written communication date back to about 3,500-3,000 bce, literacy remained for centuries a very restricted technology closely associated with the exercise of power. It was only until the middle Ages that book production started growing and literacy among the general population slowly started becoming important in the western World. 1, in fact, while the ambition of universal literacy in Europe was a fundamental reform born from the Enlightenment, it took centuries for it to happen. It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that rates of literacy approached universality in early-industrialized countries. The following visualization presents estimates of world literacy for the period. As we can see, literacy rates grew constantly but rather slowly until the beginning of the twentieth century.
an extra few thousand for all that. Literacy is a key skill and a key measure of a populations education. In this entry we discuss historical trends, as well as recent developments in literacy. From a historical perspective, literacy levels for the world population have risen drastically in the last couple of centuries. While only 12 of the people in the world could read and write in 1820, today the share has reversed: only 17 of the world population remains illiterate. Despite large improvements in the expansion of basic education, and the continuous reduction of education inequalities, there are substantial challenges ahead. The poorest countries in the world, where basic education is most likely to be a binding constraint for development, still have very large segments of the population who are illiterate.
I bet your summary parents probably said this exact sentence to you only yesterday. But oh, how misunderstood us gamers are. Like any pro sportsman, if youre really, really good at winning, you can rise to the top like the delicious cream in a milky underworld of quickscoping and sexually ambiguous usernames. And then, once youre there, you can start makin paper. Some pretty serious paper too, as it happens. In truth, your bank account might not quite rival that of Tiger woods, but youd be surprised at just how much you could earn for a few hours worth of pwning nOObs. So, by way of comparison, here are the seven highest game-playing earners from around the world. Read on to find out just how much theyre making (or just how much you could expect to earn if you limber up your fingers and beat them).
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Next, as it stands today, the highest paid athlete in the world is boxer Floyd mayweather. His earnings, with no endorsements, total some 105 reviews million dollars. Footballer Christiano ronaldo comes in second, with his bank manager gleefully overseeing around 80 million a year. Getting paid such substantial amounts for doing something you love every day, something that could hardly be considered a job at all. But this is the dizzying world of the professional sportsperson, this is not for us mere gamers! Were all out of work graphic designers or stuck in dead-end it jobs. World of Warcraft players bank account is never going to look the same as lebron James (72.3 million is it now?