Frequency : The number of times users access a type of media per day. Heavy social media users, such as young people, check their social media account numerous times throughout the day. Accessibility : The means of production for industrial media are typically government or corporate (privately owned social media tools are generally available to the public at little or no cost, or they are supported by advertising revenue. While social media tools are available to anyone with access to Internet and a computer or mobile device, due to the digital divide, the poorest segment of the population lacks access to the Internet and computer. Low-income people may have more access to traditional media (tv, radio, etc. as an inexpensive tv and aerial or radio costs much less than an inexpensive computer or mobile device. Moreover, in many regions, tv or radio owners can tune into free over the air programming; computer or mobile device owners need Internet access to go to social media sites. Usability : Industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training.
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Social media are distinct from industrial or traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, and film as they are comparatively inexpensive and accessible (at least once a person has already acquired Internet access and a computer). They enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information. Industrial media generally require significant resources to publish information as in most cases the articles go through many revisions before being published. This process adds to the cost and the resulting market price. Originally social media was only used by individuals but now it is used by businesses, writing charities and also in government and politics. One characteristic shared by both social and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach no people or millions of people. 27 Some of the properties that help describe the differences between social and industrial media are: quality : In industrial (traditional) publishing—mediated by a publisher—the typical range of quality is substantially narrower (skewing to the high quality side) than in niche, unmediated markets like user-generated. The main challenge posed by the content in social media sites is the fact that the distribution of quality has high variance: from very high-quality items to low-quality, sometimes even abusive or inappropriate content. 5 reach : Both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and are capable of reaching a global audience. Industrial media, however, typically use a centralized framework for organization, production, and dissemination, whereas social media are by their very nature more decentralized, less hierarchical, and distinguished by multiple points of production and utility.
For example, american Eagle outfitters remunerates such customers with a tiered 10, 15, or 20 discount on their total purchase. 25 e-commerce : Social media sites are increasingly implementing marketing-friendly strategies, creating platforms that are mutually beneficial for users, businesses, and the networks themselves in the popularity and accessibility of e-commerce, or online purchases. The real user who posts her or his comments about a company's product or service benefits because they are able to share their views with their online friends and acquaintances. The company benefits because it obtains insight (positive or negative) about how their product or service is viewed by consumers. Mobile social media applications such as m and Pinterest have started to influence an upward trend in the popularity and accessibility of e-commerce, or online purchases. 26 need"tion to verify e-commerce businesses may refer to social media as consumer-generated media (CGM). A common thread running through all definitions of social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value for the business or organization that is using. People obtain valuable information, education, news, and other data from electronic and print media.
Any firm can know the exact time at which a customer entered one of its outlets, as well as know the social media comments made during the visit. 25 Communication : Mobile social media communication takes two forms: company-to-consumer (in which a company may establish a connection to a consumer based on its location and provide reviews about locations nearby) and user-generated content. For example, mcDonald's offered 5 and 10 gift-cards to 100 users randomly selected among those checking in at one of its restaurants. This promotion increased check-ins by 33 (from 2,146 to 2,865 resulted in over 50 articles and blog posts, and prompted several hundred thousand news feeds and Twitter messages. 25 Sales promotions and discounts: Although customers have business had to use printed coupons in the past, mobile social media allows companies to tailor promotions to specific users at specific times. For example, when launching its California-cancun service, virgin America offered users who checked in through loopt at one of three designated Border trucks in San Francisco and Los Angeles between. On August 31, 2010, two tacos for 1 and two flights to mexico for the price of one. 25 This special promotion was only available to people who were at a certain location and at a certain time. Relationship development and loyalty programs: In order to increase long-term relationships with customers, companies can develop loyalty programs that allow customers who check-in via social media regularly at a location to earn discounts or perks.
25 due to the fact that mobile social media run on mobile devices, they differ from traditional social media by incorporating new factors such as the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages (time-sensitivity). According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be differentiated among four types: 25 Space-timers (location and time sensitive exchange of messages with relevance mostly for one specific location at one specific point in time (e.g. Facebook places What's app; foursquare ) Space-locators (only location sensitive exchange of messages, with relevance for one specific location, which is tagged to a certain place and read later by others (e.g. Yelp ; Qype, tumblr, fishbrain ) quick-timers (only time sensitive transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices to increase immediacy (e.g. Posting Twitter messages or Facebook status updates) Slow-timers (neither location nor time sensitive transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g. Watching a video or reading/editing a wikipedia article) Business potential edit Although social media accessed via desktop computers offer a variety of opportunities for companies in a wide range of business sectors, mobile social media, which users are accessing when they are "on the. Mobile social media tools can be used for marketing research, communication, sales promotions /discounts, and relationship development/ loyalty programs. 25 Marketing research : Mobile social media applications offer data about offline consumer movements at a level of detail heretofore limited to online companies.
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Research 23 shows that the audience spends 22 of their time on social networking sites, thus proving how popular social media platforms have become. This increase is because of the widespread daily use of smartphones. 24 Viral content edit some social media sites have greater potential for content that is posted there to spread virally over social networks. This is an analogy to the concept of a viral infectious disease in biology, some of which can spread rapidly from an infected person to another person. In a social media context, content or websites that are "viral" (or which "go viral are those with a greater likelihood that users will reshare content posted (by another user) to their social network, leading to further sharing.
In some cases, posts containing controversial content (e.g., kim Kardashian 's nude photos that "broke the Internet" and book crashed servers) or fast-breaking news have been rapidly shared and re-shared by huge numbers of users. Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users reshare content for example, twitter 's retweet button, pinterest 's pin function, facebook 's share option or Tumblr 's reblog function. Businesses have a particular interest in viral marketing tactics because such a campaign can achieve widespread advertising coverage (particularly if the "viral" reposting itself makes the news) for a fraction of the cost of a traditional marketing campaign (e.g., billboard ads, television commercials, magazine ads. Nonprofit organizations and activists may have similar interests in posting content online with the hopes that it goes viral. Mobile users edit young people have high usage rates of smartphones, which enables this demographic to be significant users of social media websites. Mobile social media refers to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. This is a group of mobile marketing applications that allow the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content.
Definition and classification edit The variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them. 1 The idea that social media are defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad, as this would suggest that fundamentally different technologies like the telegraph and telephone are also social media. 19 The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social media as social networks or social networking services. 3 A 2015 paper 1 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to then-current social media services: social media are web.0 Internet-based applications, 1 2 user-generated content (UGC) is the lifeblood of the social media organism, 1 2 users. 1 3 In 2016, merriam-Webster defined social media as "forms of electronic communication (such as Web sites) through which people create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, etc." 20 Classification of social media and overview of how important different types of social media.
Blogs ) are for each of a company's operational functions (e.g. Marketing ) 21 Social media technologies take many different forms including blogs, business networks, enterprise social networks, forums, microblogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, and virtual worlds. 21 The development of social media started off with simple platforms such. 22 Unlike instant messaging clients, such as icq and aol's aim, or chat clients like irc, ichat or Chat Television, m was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names. The first social networks were short-lived, however, because their users lost interest. The social Network revolution has led to the rise of the networking sites.
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Before long, most major cities had more than one bbs running on trs-80, apple ii, atari, ibm pc, commodore 64, sinclair, and similar personal computers. The ibm pc was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the list 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, prodigy and aol were three of the largest bbs companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, bbses numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. 15 Message forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the bbs phenomenon throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. When the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks. Geocities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in november 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995, six Degrees in may 1997, Open diary in October 1998, livejournal in April 1999, ryze in October 2001, Friendster in March 2002, linkedIn in may. 360 in March 2005, bebo in July 2005, Twitter in July 2006, tumblr in February 2007, and google in July 2011.
Currently, about half of young adults have been cyberbullied, and of those, 20 said that they have been cyberbullied regularly. 11 Another survey in the. Applied the Precaution Process Adoption Model to cyberbullying on Facebook among 7th grade students. According to this study, 69 of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying, and they also said that it was worse than face-to-face bullying. 12 Both the bully and the victim are negatively affected, and the intensity, duration, and frequency of bullying are the three aspects that increase paranormal the negative effects on both of them 13 Contents History edit social media has a history dating back to the 1970s. 14 arpanet, which first came online in 1969, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as clearly evidenced by arpanetRules and etiquette 's "A 1982 handbook on computing at mit's ai lab stated regarding network etiquette and. Usenet, which arrived in 1979, was beat by a precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS) known as Community memory in 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the computer Bulletin board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
social media, with many spending more than two hours per day on social networking sites. 8 According to nielsen, Internet users continue to spend more time on social media sites than on any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media sites in the. Across PCs as well as on mobile devices increased by 99 percent to 121 billion minutes in July 2012, compared to 66 billion minutes in July 2011. 9 For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building a reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income. 10 Observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, and social media can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between heavy social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment and " trolling ".
When engaging with these services, users can create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals." 4, social media changes the way individuals and large organizations communicate. These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media (e.g., magazines and newspapers) to traditional electronic media such as tv broadcasting in many ways, including quality, 5 reach, frequency, interactivity, usability, immediacy, and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system (many sources to many receivers). 6 This is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model (one source to many receivers such as a newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites are baidu tieba, facebook (and its associated Facebook messenger google, myspace, instagram, linkedIn, pinterest, snapchat, tumblr, twitter, viber, vk, wechat, weibo, whatsApp, and wikia.
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A facebook page on a mobile phone. Social media write are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition; however, there are some common features: 1, social media are interactive, web.0, internet -based applications. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. 1 3, social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. 1 3, users typically access social media services via web-based technologies on desk top, computers, and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablet computers ).