41 One of Eliot's biographers, peter Ackroyd, commented that "the purposes of Eliot's conversion were two-fold. One: the Church of England offered Eliot some hope for himself, and I think Eliot needed some resting place. But secondly, it attached Eliot to the English community and English culture." 35 Separation and remarriage edit by 1932, Eliot had been contemplating a separation from his wife for some time. When Harvard offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the academic year, he accepted and left vivienne in England. Upon his return, he arranged for a formal separation from her, avoiding all but one meeting with her between his leaving for America in 1932 and her death in 1947. Vivienne was committed to the northumberland house mental hospital, Stoke newington, in 1938, and remained there until she died.
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Eliot to geoffrey faber. 32 In 1925 Eliot left Lloyds to become a director in the publishing firm Faber and Gwyer, later Faber and Faber, where he remained for the rest of his career. 33 34 At Faber and Faber, he was responsible for publishing important English poets like. Auden, stephen Spender, and Ted Hughes. 35 Conversion to Anglicanism and British citizenship edit The faber and Faber building where Eliot worked from 1925 to 1965; the commemorative plaque is under the right-hand arch. On, eliot converted to Anglicanism from Unitarianism, and in november that delft year he took british citizenship. He became a warden of his parish church, St Stephen's, Gloucester road, london, and a life member of the society of King Charles the martyr. 36 37 he specifically identified as Anglo-catholic, proclaiming himself "classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic sic in religion". 38 39 About 30 years later Eliot commented on his religious views that he combined "a catholic cast of mind, a calvinist heritage, and a puritanical temperament". 40 he also had wider spiritual interests, commenting that "I see the path of progress for modern man in his occupation with his own self, with his inner being" and citing goethe and Rudolf Steiner as exemplars of such a direction.
To her, the marriage brought no happiness. To me, it brought the state of mind out of which came The waste land." 30 teaching, Lloyds, faber and Faber edit After leaving Merton, Eliot worked as a gender schoolteacher, most notably at Highgate School, a private school in London, where he taught French and. 4 Later he taught at the royal Grammar School, high Wycombe, a state school in Buckinghamshire. To earn extra money, he wrote book reviews and lectured at evening extension courses at the University college london, and Oxford. In 1917, he took a position at Lloyds Bank in London, working on foreign accounts. On a trip to paris in August 1920 with the artist Wyndham Lewis, he met the writer James joyce. Eliot said he found joyce arrogant—joyce doubted Eliot's ability as a poet at the time—but the two soon became friends, with Eliot visiting joyce whenever he was in Paris. 31 Eliot and Wyndham Lewis also maintained a close friendship, leading to lewis's later making his well-known portrait painting of Eliot in 1938. Charles Whibley recommended.
The philosopher Bertrand Russell took an interest in vivienne while the newlyweds stayed in his flat. Some scholars have suggested that she and Russell had an affair, but the allegations were never confirmed. 28 The marriage was markedly unhappy, in part entry because of vivienne's health issues. In a letter addressed to ezra pound, she covers an extensive list of her symptoms, which included a habitually high temperature, fatigue, insomnia, migraines, and colitis. 29 This, coupled with apparent mental instability, meant that she was often sent away by Eliot and her doctors for extended periods of time in the hope of improving her health, and as time went on, he became increasingly detached from her. The couple formally separated in 19 vivienne's brother, maurice, had her committed to a lunatic asylum, against her will, where she remained until her death of heart disease in 1947. Their relationship became the subject of a 1984 play tom viv, literature which in 1994 was adapted as a film. In a private paper written in his sixties, Eliot confessed: "I came to persuade myself that I was in love with vivienne simply because i wanted to burn my boats and commit myself to staying in England. And she persuaded herself (also under the influence of Ezra pound) that she would save the poet by keeping him in England.
He was instead spending long periods of time in London, in the company of Ezra pound and "some of the modern artists whom the war has so far spared. It was pound who helped most, introducing him everywhere." 24 In the end, Eliot did not settle at Merton and left after a year. In 1915 he taught English at Birkbeck, university of London. By 1916, he had completed a doctoral dissertation for Harvard on "Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy. Bradley but he failed to return for the viva voce exam. 4 25 Marriage edit In a letter to aiken late in December 1914, Eliot, aged 26, wrote, "I am very dependent upon women (I mean female society)." 26 Less than four months later, Thayer introduced Eliot to vivienne haigh-wood, a cambridge governess. They were married at Hampstead Register Office on 27 After a short visit alone to his family in the United States, Eliot returned to london and took several teaching jobs, such as lecturing at Birkbeck college, university of London.
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After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from 1909 to 1910, Eliot moved to paris where, from 1910 to 1911, he studied philosophy at the sorbonne. He attended lectures by henri bergson and read poetry with Henri Alban-fournier. 4 to 1914, he was back at Harvard studying Indian philosophy and Sanskrit. 4 22 Eliot was awarded a scholarship to merton College, oxford, in 1914. He first visited Marburg, germany, where he planned to take a summer programme, but when the first World War broke out he went to Oxford instead. At the time so many American students attended Merton that the junior Common room proposed a motion "that this society abhors the Americanization of Oxford". It was defeated by two votes, after Eliot reminded the students how much they owed American culture.
23 Eliot wrote to conrad aiken on New year's eve 1914: "I hate university towns and university people, who are the same everywhere, with pregnant wives, sprawling children, many books and hideous pictures on the walls. Oxford is very pretty, but I don't like to be dead." 23 Escaping Oxford, Eliot spent much of his time in London. This city had a monumental and life-altering effect on Eliot for several reasons, the most significant of which was his introduction to the influential American literary figure ezra pound. A connection through aiken resulted in an arranged meeting and on 22 September 1914, Eliot paid a visit to pound's summary flat. Pound instantly deemed Eliot "worth watching" and was crucial to Eliot's beginning career as a poet, as he is credited with promoting Eliot through social events and literary gatherings. Thus, according to biographer John Worthen, during his time in England Eliot "was seeing flight as little of Oxford as possible".
Louis for vacations and visits. Despite moving away from the city, eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world." 9 Following graduation, Eliot attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts for a preparatory year, where. He studied philosophy at Harvard College from 1906 to 1909, earning his bachelor's degree after three years, instead of the usual four. 4 While a student, Eliot was placed on academic probation and graduated with a pass degree (i.e. He recovered and persisted, attaining.
In an elective program best described as comparative literature in three years, and. In English literature in the fourth. 20 Frank kermode writes that the most important moment of Eliot's undergraduate career was in 1908 when he discovered Arthur Symons 's The symbolist movement in Literature. This introduced him to jules Laforgue, arthur Rimbaud, and paul Verlaine. Without Verlaine, eliot wrote, he might never have heard of Tristan Corbière and his book les amours jaunes, a work that affected the course of Eliot's life. 21 The harvard Advocate published some of his poems and he became lifelong friends with Conrad aiken, the American novelist.
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14 Also published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript, an untitled lyric, later revised and reprinted as "Song" in The with harvard Advocate, harvard University 's student magazine. 15 he also published three short stories in 1905, "Birds of Prey "a tale of a whale" and "The man Who was King". The last mentioned story significantly reflects his exploration of Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 World's fair. Such a link with primitive people importantly antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard. 19 Eliot lived. Louis, missouri for the first sixteen years of his life at the house on Locust. Where he was born. After going away to school in 1905, he only returned.
Once he learned to read, the young boy immediately became obsessed with worker books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages, the wild West, or Mark Twain 's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer. 10 In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot "would often curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living." 11 Secondly, eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his. Louis affected me more deeply than any other environment has ever done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river, which is incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London." to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek, french, and German. He began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald 's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam. He said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them. 13 His first published poem, "a fable for feasters was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy record in February 1905.
Eliot was born at 2635 Locust Street, a property owned by his grandfather, william Greenleaf Eliot. 9 His four sisters were between 11 and 19 years older; his brother was eight years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Stearns. Eliot's childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors. Firstly, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in many physical activities and thus was prevented from socializing with his peers. As he was often isolated, his love for literature developed.
It was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including. The waste land (1922 the hollow Men " (1925 ash Wednesday " (1930 and, four quartets (1943). He was also known for his seven plays, particularly. Murder in the cathedral (1935) and, the cocktail Party (1949). He was awarded the, nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry". Contents, early life and education edit, the, eliots were a, boston plan Brahmin family with roots in, old and. Thomas Eliot's paternal grandfather, william Greenleaf Eliot, had moved. Louis, missouri 4 7, to establish a unitarian Christian church there. His father, henry ware Eliot (18431919 8 was a successful businessman, president and treasurer of the hydraulic-Press Brick company in St louis.
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For other people named Thomas Eliot, see. Thomas Stearns Eliot, om (26 September 1888 was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets". 2, born in,. Louis, in the United States, he moved to England in 1914 at the age business of 25, settling, working, and marrying there. He eventually became. British subject in 1927 at the age of 39, renouncing his American passport. 3, eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem ". The love song. Alfred Prufrock " (1915 which was seen as a masterpiece of the.