If the action in the subordinate clause took place later than the action in the main clause, the future in the past is used in the subordinate clause would" is used instead of "will. I wasn't sure that he would be at home. I knew that she would be waiting for me by the entrance. It will be easier to understand the rules of the sequence of tenses if you study how direct speech is changed into reported speech. Meaning 1: Habitual, regular action in the present. Time expressions: usually; every day; often; sometimes; rarely; never. Examples: i usually work till seven o'clock.
English Grammar 101 - verbs, lesson 8: Tenses of Verbs
He learned that the pro hotel concierge usually locked the front door at midnight. She found out that he still worked at a bank. He was able to prove that the house belonged to him. The choice of a past tense in the object subordinate clause If the verb in the main clause is in the past tense (usually, in the simple past there for are three possible variants of the action in the subordinate clause: at the same time. If the action in the subordinate clause took place at the same time as the action in the main clause, the simple past (or the past continuous if required by the context) is used in the subordinate clause. I thought that he worked at a bank. I knew that she was waiting for me by the entrance. If the action in the subordinate clause took place earlier than the action in the main clause, the past perfect (or the past perfect continuous if required by the context) is used in the subordinate clause. I knew that he had already left for Rome. She said that she had been waiting for me for a long time.
In Russian object clauses, we can use any tense that conveys the meaning correctly, that is, the present, the future, or the past. But it is necessary to use one of the past tenses in English object clauses if the verb in the main clause is in the past tense. Exception from the rule If a general truth is expressed in the object subordinate owl clause, the present tense is usually used in the subordinate clause despite the fact that the past tense is used in the main clause. Newton discovered that the force of gravity pulls all bodies to the earth. Galileo proved that the earth revolves around the sun. Yesterday my little granddaughter learned that lions and tigers belong to the cat family. Compare the use of the present tense in the clauses expressing general truths in the examples above with the use of the past tense according to the rules of the sequence of tenses in the examples below.
I knew what she wanted to buy. I didn't know what he meant. They didn't know when he would return. I heard that. Smith was going to be our new director. He understood later that you wanted to help him. I asked him why he hadn't bought that book. The rules of the sequence of tenses may seem illogical to us, because the result of the application of these rules may be that the tense in the object subordinate clause doesn't show the actual time of the action.
Useful English: Tenses Summary Charts
The examples below show how the sentences given above will change if monroe we use the past tense in the main clause. I thought that he lived on Rose Street. She thought that it was a nice hotel. She didn't know whether he would agree to. I wondered whether she would buy that house. I didn't know if she was in town. I wasn't sure that he would help.
Did you hear what I said? Did you know that John had left for Chicago? Did you see what he was doing? I saw that he was writing a report. I knew where she had gone. I knew who did.
Do you hear what I say? Do you know that John has left for Chicago? Do you see what he is doing? I see that he is writing a report. I know where she went. I know who did.
He knows what she wants to buy. I don't know what he means. They don't know when he will return. I have heard that. Smith is going to be our new director. He will understand that you want to help him. I will ask him why he didn't buy that book. Past tense in the main clause. If the verb in the main clause is in the past tense, the verb in the object subordinate clause should also be used in one of the past tenses.
Useful English: Sequence of Tenses
If the verb in the main clause is in the present or in the future, the verb in the object subordinate clause may be in any tense that conveys the meaning correctly according to sense, logic, and general rules of the use of tenses. I think that he lives on Rose Street. She thinks that it's father's a nice hotel. She doesn't know whether he will agree to. I wonder whether she will buy this house. I don't know if she is in town. I'm not sure that he will help.
For example: I think that she is tired. i think she is tired. I was sure that they were waiting for. i was sure they were waiting for. The other conjunctions and conjunctive words introducing object clauses are not omitted. Generally, the rules of the sequence of tenses are quite strictly observed in object subordinate clauses in cases where the past tense is used in the main clause. The examples below show the use of the tenses in object subordinate clauses depending on essay the tense of the verb in the main clause. Present or future in the main clause.
her tomorrow. She will visit them tomorrow if she has the time. (see more examples in the articles. Word Order in Complex Sentences and, key to future tenses in the section Grammar. sequence of tenses in sentences with object clauses. Object subordinate clauses answer the question "what?" and stand in the place of an object after such verbs as "know, think, believe, understand, wonder, agree, say, tell, ask, answer, remark" and phrases like "I'm sure (that i'm afraid (that. Object clauses are connected to the main clause by the conjunctions "that, whether, if" and by conjunctive adverbs and pronouns, such as "where, when, why, how, who, what and some others. Object clauses are most often introduced by the conjunction "that which is often omitted.
I went to bed early because i was very tired. He didn't answer your questions because he doesn't real speak english. While i was watching tv, the telephone rang. By the time he returned, i had typed ten pages of my report. The books that I bought yesterday are on my desk. The surgeon who is going to perform the operation arrived yesterday. The surgeon who was going to perform the operation fell ill yesterday. Yesterday the patient felt better than he feels today.
The English Tenses Practical Grammar guide - kindle
Sequence of tenses long in complex sentences. The term "sequence of tenses" refers to the choice of the verb tense in the subordinate clause depending on the tense of the verb in the main clause. The rule of the sequence of tenses means that the tense in the subordinate clause is determined by the tense in the main clause and should agree with it both logically and grammatically. The term "sequence of tenses" is often translated into russian as "agreement of tenses". Generally, in complex sentences with all types of subordinate clauses, except the object clause, the sequence of the tenses in the pair "verb in the main clause verb in the subordinate clause" is logical and based on sense and general rules of the use. The verb in the subordinate clause may be in any tense that reflects the actual time of the action and conveys the meaning correctly in the pair with the verb in the main clause. She goes for a walk in the park when the weather is good. She went for a walk in the park when the weather was good. She has been teaching since she graduated from college.