Schema theory predicts that information matching prior expectations will be more easily stored and recalled than information that does not match. 32 Some alternative approaches say that surprising information stands out and so is memorable. 32 Predictions from both these theories have been confirmed in different experimental contexts, with no theory winning outright. 33 In one study, participants read a profile of a woman which described a mix of introverted and extroverted behaviors. 34 They later had to recall examples of her introversion and extroversion. One group was told this was to assess the woman for a job as a librarian, while a second group were told it was for a job in real estate sales. There was a significant difference between what these two groups recalled, with the "librarian" group recalling more examples of introversion and the "sales" groups recalling more extroverted behavior. 34 A selective memory effect has also been shown in experiments that manipulate the desirability of personality types.
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American participants provided their opinion if the car should be banned on a six-point scale, where one indicated "definitely yes" and six indicated "definitely no". Participants firstly evaluated if they would management allow a dangerous German car on American streets and a dangerous American car on German streets. Participants believed that the dangerous German car on American streets should be banned more quickly than the dangerous American car on German streets. There was no difference among intelligence levels at the rate participants would ban a car. 22 biased interpretation is not restricted to emotionally significant topics. In another experiment, participants were told a story about a theft. They had to rate the evidential importance of statements arguing either for or against a particular character being responsible. When they hypothesized that character's guilt, they rated statements supporting that hypothesis as more important than conflicting statements. 30 biased memory edit people may remember evidence selectively to reinforce report their expectations, even if they gather and interpret evidence in a neutral manner. This effect is called "selective recall "confirmatory memory or "access-biased memory". 31 Psychological theories differ in their predictions about selective recall.
In this experiment, the participants made their judgments while in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner which monitored their brain activity. As participants evaluated contradictory statements by their favored candidate, emotional centers of their brains were aroused. This did not happen with the statements by the other figures. The experimenters inferred that the different responses to the statements were not due to passive reasoning errors. Instead, the participants were actively reducing the cognitive dissonance induced by reading about their favored candidate's irrational or hypocritical behavior. 29 :1956 biases in belief interpretation are persistent, reviews regardless of intelligence level. Participants in an experiment took the sat test (a college admissions test used in the United States) to assess their intelligence levels. They then read information regarding safety concerns for vehicles, and the experimenters manipulated the national origin of the car.
This effect, known as "disconfirmation bias has been supported by other experiments. 28 Another study of biased interpretation occurred during the 2004. Presidential election and involved participants who reported having strong feelings about the candidates. They were shown apparently contradictory pairs of statements, either from reviews Republican candidate george. Bush, democratic candidate john Kerry or a politically neutral public figure. They were also given further statements that made the apparent contradiction seem reasonable. From these three pieces of information, they had to decide whether or not each individual's statements were inconsistent. 29 :1948 There were strong differences in these evaluations, with participants much more likely to interpret statements from the candidate they opposed as contradictory. 29 :1951 An mri scanner allowed researchers to examine how the human brain deals with unwelcome information.
Then, they read a more detailed account of each study's procedure and had to rate whether the research was well-conducted and convincing. 25 In fact, the studies were fictional. Half the participants were told that one kind of study supported the deterrent effect and the other undermined it, while for other participants the conclusions were swapped. 25 26 The participants, whether supporters or opponents, reported shifting their attitudes slightly in the direction of the first study they read. Once they read the more detailed descriptions of the two studies, they almost all returned to their original belief regardless of the evidence provided, pointing to details that supported their viewpoint and disregarding anything contrary. Participants described studies supporting their pre-existing view as superior to those that contradicted it, in detailed and specific ways. 25 27 Writing about a study that seemed to undermine the deterrence effect, a death penalty proponent wrote, "The research didn't cover a long enough period of time while an opponent's comment on the same study said, "No strong evidence to contradict the researchers has.
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So, participants could "fire" objects across the screen to test their hypotheses. Despite making many attempts over a ten-hour session, none of the participants figured out the rules of the system. They typically attempted to confirm rather than falsify their hypotheses, and were reluctant to consider alternatives. Even after seeing objective evidence that refuted their working hypotheses, they frequently continued doing the same tests. Some of the participants were taught proper hypothesis-testing, but these instructions had almost no effect. 23 biased interpretation edit Smart people believe weird things because they are skilled at essay defending beliefs they arrived at for non-smart reasons. — michael Shermer 24 Confirmation biases are not limited to the collection of evidence.
Even if two individuals have the same information, the way they interpret it can be biased. A team at Stanford University conducted an experiment involving participants who felt strongly about capital punishment, with half in favor and half against. 25 26 Each participant read descriptions of two studies: a comparison. States with and without the death penalty, and a comparison of murder rates in a state before and after the introduction of the death penalty. After reading a quick description of each study, the participants were asked whether their opinions had changed.
18 A later version of the experiment gave the participants less presumptive questions to choose from, such as, "do you shy away from social interactions?" 19 Participants preferred to ask these more diagnostic questions, showing only a weak bias towards positive tests. This pattern, of a main preference for diagnostic tests and a weaker preference for positive tests, has been replicated in other studies. 19 Personality traits influence and interact with biased search processes. 20 Individuals vary in their abilities to defend their attitudes from external attacks in relation to selective exposure. Selective exposure occurs when individuals search for information that is consistent, rather than inconsistent, with their personal beliefs.
21 An experiment examined the extent to which individuals could refute arguments that contradicted their personal beliefs. 20 people with high confidence levels more readily seek out contradictory information to their personal position to form an argument. Individuals with low confidence levels do not seek out contradictory information and prefer information that supports their personal position. People generate and evaluate evidence in arguments that are biased towards their own beliefs and opinions. 22 heightened confidence levels decrease preference for information that supports individuals' personal beliefs. Another experiment gave participants a complex rule-discovery task that involved moving objects simulated by a computer. 23 Objects on the computer screen followed specific laws, which the participants had to figure out.
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This was shown using a fictional child custody case. 17 Participants read that parts Parent A was moderately suitable to be database the guardian in multiple ways. Parent B had a mix of salient positive and negative qualities: a close relationship with the child but a job that would take him or her away for long periods of time. When asked, "Which parent should have custody of the child?" the majority of participants chose parent b, looking mainly for positive attributes. However, when asked, "Which parent should be denied custody of the child?" they looked for negative attributes and the majority answered that Parent B should be denied custody, implying that Parent A should have custody. 17 Similar studies have demonstrated how people engage in a biased search for information, but also that this phenomenon may be limited by a preference for genuine diagnostic tests. In an initial experiment, participants rated another person on the introversionextroversion personality dimension on the basis of an interview. They chose the interview questions from a given list. When the interviewee was introduced as an introvert, the participants chose questions that presumed introversion, such as, "What do you find unpleasant about noisy parties?" When the interviewee was described as extroverted, almost all the questions presumed extroversion, such as, "What would you.
In studies where subjects could select either such pseudo-tests or genuinely diagnostic ones, they favored the genuinely diagnostic. 12 13 The preference for positive novel tests in itself is not a bias, since positive tests can be highly informative. 14 However, in combination with other effects, this strategy can confirm existing beliefs or assumptions, independently of whether they are true. 15 In real-world situations, evidence is often complex and mixed. For example, various contradictory ideas about someone could each be supported by concentrating on one aspect of his or her behavior. 9 Thus any search for evidence in favor of a hypothesis is likely to succeed. 15 One illustration of this is the way the phrasing of a question can significantly change the answer. 9 For example, people who are asked, "Are you happy with your social life?" report greater satisfaction than those asked, "Are you un happy with your social life?" 16 even a small change in a question's wording can affect how people search through available information.
collection of evidence that supports what one already believes while ignoring or rejecting evidence that supports a different conclusion. Others apply the term more broadly to the tendency to preserve one's existing beliefs when searching for evidence, interpreting it, or recalling it from memory. 6 Note 2 biased search for information edit confirmation bias has been described as an internal " yes man echoing back a person's beliefs like charles Dickens ' character Uriah heep. 7 Experiments have found repeatedly that people tend to test hypotheses in a one-sided way, by searching for evidence consistent with their current hypothesis. 8 9 Rather than searching through all the relevant evidence, they phrase questions to receive an affirmative answer that supports their theory. 10 They look for the consequences that they would expect if their hypothesis were true, rather than what would happen if they were false. 10 For example, someone using yes/no questions to find a number he or she suspects to be the number 3 might ask, "Is it an odd number?" people prefer this type of question, called a "positive test even when a negative test such as "Is. 11 However, this does not mean that people seek tests that guarantee a positive answer.
In certain situations, this tendency can bias people's conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation fuller is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way. However, even scientists can be prone to confirmation bias. 2, confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts. 3 4, contents, confirmation biases are effects in information processing.
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Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, note 1 is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. 1, it is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias is a variation of the more general tendency of apophenia. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence belief perseverance (when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false the. A series of psychological experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Later work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring presentation alternatives.