The Al-Azhar University has denounced the Ahmadis 40 and Ahmadis have been hounded by police along with other Muslim groups deemed to be deviant under Egypt's defamation laws. 41 42 On, nine Ahmadis were detained due to their adherence to the movement. 43 44 Nondenominational Muslims edit There are a significant amount of Nondenominational Muslims in Egypt. Roughly twelve percent of Egyptians, when asked about their religious affiliation, answered that they were "just a muslim" or "just Muslim". Their lack of identifying with a particular sect was noteworthy. 45 State involvement edit The ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments, oversees mosques in Egypt. 7 There are more than 110,000 mosques registered with the state in Egypt. 46 The ministry assigns ulama to registered mosques, which critics complain inevitably involves favoritism and political connections.
Essay on Place and, status of, women in, islam
Sufi Islam is a sore point with Salafi muslims. Salafi and other Islamists believe sufi tombs are for unIslamic 21 and have sometimes sabotaged or vandalized tombs and moulids. 22 23 Quranism edit non-sectarian Muslims who reject the authority of hadith, known as Quranists, quraniyoon, or Ahl al-Quran, are also present in Egypt. During the early 20th century, the ideas of Egyptian Quranists like muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi (18811920) are thought to have grown out of Salafism specifically a rejection of taqlid. 28 Notable Egyptian Quranists include sidqi, rashad Khalifa, ahmed Subhy mansour, and Tawfik hamid. 29 30 Shia edit main article: Shia islam in Egypt While almost all of Egypt's Muslims are sunni, 31 there are a small number of Shia. (Estimates of their number range from 800,000 32 to "at most" three million. 33 34 ) The syrian civil war has brought on an gas increase in anti-Shia rhetoric by sunnis, 35 36 harassment and arrest, 37 and in at least one case bloodshed. In June 2013 a mob of several hundred, including Muslim brotherhood members, attacked a house in the village of Abu musallim near cairo, dragging four Shia worshipers through the street before lynching them. 36 Eight other Shia were injured. 35 Ahmadiyya edit main article: Ahmadiyya in Egypt The Ahmadiyya movement in Egypt, which numbers up to 50,000 adherents in the country, 38 was established in 1922 39 but has seen an increase in hostility and government repression as of the 21st century.
Adherence to a sufi order has long been standard for both professors and students in the al-Azhar mosque and university system. Although al-Azhar is not monolithic, its identity has been strongly associated with Sufism. The current Shaykh al-Azhar (rector of the school Ahmed el-tayeb, is a hereditary sufi shaykh from Upper Egypt who has recently expressed his support for the formation of a world Sufi league; the current Grand Mufti of Egypt and senior al-Azhar scholar Ali gomaa. 14 Salafi edit An estimated 5-6 million Egyptians are salafis. 18 Scholar Tarek osman describes Salafis before the 2011 revolution as the "most important or pervasive islamic force in the country" with an influence "many times more than that of organized political Islam." With "no history of violence, no organizational structure, no manifestos and. 19 The salafi movement benefited from government support the 1990s when the government hoped to "combat and undermine" the violence of the jihadi salafi al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya with the preaching of the apolitical Salafis. 15 It has also benefited from some of the 70 billion spent by saudi Arabia to promote apple "Wahhabi" ideology worldwide through mosques, schools and books, that is similar or "virtually identical to salafi beliefs and with which Sufis have had difficulty competing." 15 During the. In the 201112 Egypt parliamentary elections, the Islamist Bloc led by salafi Al-nour Party received.8 of votes cast or 127 of the 498 parliamentary seats contested, 20 second-place after the muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice party. AlNour party itself won 111 of the 127 seats.
15 Participation at the festivals ( moulids ) the sufi orders organize, is perhaps twice that (and includes women and children). 17 The moulids are a major manifestation of Sufi Islam in Egypt, and are held in honor of holy men and women. (In Egypt the term moulid is not reserved for Muslim festivals and may be in honor of Christian, and until recently jewish holy men). Sufi muslim moulids not only venerate the prophet Muhammad and his descendants (such as Hussein, the second son of the fourth Caliph Ali whose moulid in cairo can shredder draws crowds of more than a million people but founders of Sufi orders, down to dozens. The largest moulid in Egypt takes place in Tanta, the largest city in the nile delta, and draws an even larger number of pilgrims than hajj in Mecca. As many as three million Egyptians and other Arabs gather there every October to celebrate the life of sayid Ahmad al-Badawi, a thirteenth-century sufi leader. 17 According to the Egyptian Ministry of Awqaf (Islamic charity there are officially more than forty such annual commemorations, and the sufi council in Egypt lists eighty other festivals for lesser-known barbing founders of Sufi orders. 17 According to a report issued by the carnegie endowment for International peace, egypts Islamic religious establishment is strongly sufi in character.
15 Sufism exists in a number of forms, most of which represent an original tarika path developed by an inspired founder, or sheikh. These sheikhs gradually gathered about themselves murids, or disciples, whom they initiated into the tarika. Gradually the murids formed orders, also known as turuq, which were loyal to the Sheikh or his successors (also called sheikhs). In Egypt there are 74 Sufi orders (tarikas each headed by its own sheikh. Overseeing them is the supreme council for Sufi Orders and the president of Egypt is directly in charge of Sufi affairs. 16 The devotions of many sufi orders center on various forms of the dhikr, a ceremony at which music, body movements, and chants induce a state of ecstatic trance in the disciples. Since the early 1970s, there has been a revival of interest in Sufism. Egypt's contemporary sufis tend to be young, college-educated men in professional careers. 6 Estimates of the number of Sufis in Egypt include at least a third of the adult male muslim population in Egypt, (six million men) being members of a sufi order; fifteen million of the countrys roughly 80 million citizens "claim" Sufism "as a practice.
College, essay example: The Status of Women in Islam
Revelations from God in the qur'an form the basis of Monotheism merged with a belief in angels, and jinns (spirits). Popular Islam ranges from informal prayer sessions or Qur'an study to organized cults or orders. Because of the pervasive sexual segregation of Egypt's Islamic society, men and women often practice their religion in different ways. A specifically female religious custom is the zār, a ceremony for helping women placate spirits who are believed to have possessed them. Women specially trained by their mothers or other women in zar lore organize the ceremonies. A zar organizer holds weekly meetings and employs music and dance to induce ecstatic trances in possessed women. Wealthy women sometimes pay to have private zars conducted in their homes; these zars are more elaborate than public ones, last for several days, and sometimes involve efforts to exorcise spirits.
However, while once common, the zar is rarely practiced today, under fire for its perception as a religious heresy. 6 There are more than 45 million citizens 35 years old or younger. The Influence of digital/youth culture is found in preachers such as the very popular Amr Khaled who "maintains a disciplined benefits focus on the lives, issues and problems of the upper middle classes espouses living a comfortable life; talks to youth about getting closer to god. 11 The young sheikhs deliver their sermons over the Internet, on private satellite channels and in sports clubs, away from the control of Al-Azhar and the state. 11 Sufism edit a primarily male spiritual manifestation of Islam is Sufism, an Islamic mystical tradition. It has been called the "default setting" of Muslim religious life in Egypt although many sufis are thought to have voted for the muslim Brotherhood Freedom and Justice party.
11 Beliefs edit contemporary belief edit Egyptian Muslims believe that Islam defines one's relationship to god, to other Muslims, and to non-Muslims. Some devout Muslims believe that there can be no dichotomy between the sacred and the secular. Many muslims say that Egypt's governments have been secularist and even anti-religious since the early 1920s. 6 Politically organized Muslims who seek to purge the country of its secular policies are referred to as " Islamists." Egypt's largely uneducated urban and rural lower classes are intensely devoted to Islam, but they usually lack a thorough knowledge of the religion. Even village religious leaders usually have only a rudimentary knowledge of Islam.
The typical village imam or prayer leader has at most a few years of schooling; his scholarly work was limited to reading prayers and sermons prepared by others and to learning passages from the qur'an. Popular religion include a variety of unorthodox practices, such as veneration of saints, recourse to charms and amulets, and belief in the influence of evil spirits. 6 Masjid Hamza in suez, egypt Popular Islam is based mostly on oral tradition. Imams with virtually no formal education commonly memorize the entire qur'an and recite appropriate verses on religious occasions. They also tell religious stories at village festivals and commemorations marking an individual's rites of passage. Predestination plays an important role in popular Islam. 6 This concept includes the belief that everything that happens in life is the will of God and the belief that trying to avoid misfortune is useless and invites worse affliction.
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7 Ulama edit Orthodox ulama or "the religious establishment" found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s. Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who "recognize the regimes primacy, support its stability, and legitimize its policies". 10 Radical Islamists viewed them as puppets of the status quo. To maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stances. After 1974, for example, many al-Azhar ulama, who had acquiesced to family planning initiatives in the 1960s, openly criticized government margaret efforts at population control. The ulama also supported moves to reform the country's legal code to conform to Islamic teaching. They remained, nonetheless, comparatively moderate; they were largely loyal to the government and condemned the violence of radical Islamist groups. Outside of the state-mosques are more than 40,000 independent mosques throughout Egypt.
The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version sanskrit of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers and peasants in the countryside. Most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life. Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across class lines, were present in most cities and in many villages. 6 Islam and state edit muhammad Ali, who assumed power in Egypt in the early 1800s, nationalized all land, including hundreds of thousands of hectares of land belonging to Al Azhar Mosque, putting the funding of that institution under state control. 7 This put an end to the political independence of the Ulama. 8 Awqaf, traditionally independent endowments for mosques and Islamic schools, became a ministry of the government. In 1961, gamal Abdel Nasser made Al Azhar part of the ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, just as the appointment of any other state official. 9 In time the school became responsible for assigning imams to all major mosques, and all these imams were required to be graduates of the school.
capital. Egypt flourished and the fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the high Middle Ages. Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al hakim mosque. The fatimid palace in cairo had two parts. It stood in the Khan el-Khalili area at Bin El-Qasryn street. 5 In the early 20th century, egyptian Islam was a complex and diverse religion. Although Muslims agreed on the faith's basic tenets, the country's various social groups and classes applied Islam differently in their daily lives.
Ottoman rule reinforced the public online and political roles of the ulama (religious scholars. Mamluk rule had done before the Ottomans, because. Islam was the state religion and because political divisions in the country were based on religious divisions. 4, during the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. After the, egyptian revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques and religious schools. The government mandated reform. Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961.
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Al-Azhar, islamic university in, cairo, list egypt, connected to a mosque built around 971, is considered by some. Sunni, muslims as one of the world's highest Sunni muslim authorities. Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion with around an estimated 90 of the population. Almost the entirety. Egypt 's Muslims are, sunnis, 1 with a small minority of, shia and. 2, the latter, however, are not recognized by Egypt. Citation needed, islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. 3, since there has been no religious census the actual percentage of Muslims is not known: the Christians are estimated to be number between 8 to 12 according to sources cited in articles Religion in Egypt and Christianity in Egypt. Prior to, napoleon 's invasion in 1798, almost all of Egypt's educational, legal, public health, and social welfare issues were in the hands of religious functionaries.