This reflected the origin of the word. In all modern European languages, "responsibility" only finds a home toward the end of the eighteenth century. This is within debates about representative government, that is, government which is responsible to the people. In the etymology of "responsibility the. Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the. Federalist Papers (1787 and the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). John Stuart Mill writes of responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. At the end of the nineteenth century, the most notable thinker to speak of responsibility is Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of responsibility (.
Insanity, defense, essay, criminal Justice
Table of Contents, introduction, individual Responsibility, moral Agency. Retrospective responsibility, rpi prospective responsibility, responsibility as a virtue, moral versus Legal Responsibility. Collective responsibility, the Agency of Groups, retrospective responsibility of Collectives. Prospective responsibilities of Groups, responsibility as a group, conclusion. References and Further reading. Introduction, the word "responsibility" is engineer surprisingly modern. It is also,. Paul Ricoeur has observed, "not really well-established within the philosophical tradition" (2000: 11). This is reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to responsibility. The original philosophical usage of "responsibility" was political (see mcKeon, 1957).
Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility salon of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for. Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and (2). The article points out that a wider view of responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to its original philosophical use, which was in political thought.
Silver Secondary documents, sugar Documents, spice documents, early Global Commodities (click vod on left). Bittersweet Isles, europeans Spice It Up, the silver Trade - part. Sweet Industry, the Spice Trade: a taste for Adventure. Economies of Exploitation, silver, silk, and Manila 15 Minute history: Trans-Pacific Trade, silver Primary sources. Sugar Primary sources Spices Primary sources Global Commodities - primary sources. 2 Sugar in the Atlantic World - use links on left southeast Asian Spice Trade sugar, sugar, and more sugar Spice Islands: 250 years of Maps. We evaluate people summary and groups as database responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities.
Additional readings, power points, coffee houses: The first Social Network. De las Casas. Sepulveda, exploration and Colonization, american Silver, Ottoman Decline. Sublimis deus, maritime Empires, india in the world; the world in India. Politics in the early modern Era. Ching Shih: From Prostitute to pirate lord. Unit Assignments, africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave trade. Protestant Reformation Crash course, dbq views of Foreigners, silver, sugar, or Spices?
Free, insanity, essays and Papers
See my Editing slideshow fo interview rmore instructions. Use the, citation Machine to create proper source citation. Then just cut and paste it into your paper using "Insert "reference" see editing System link below if you have further questions on the rules for scholarly essay. Early modern Unit ( CE) space, unit Handouts, guided readings, additional Unit Resources, unit Calendar - fall 2016. Worlds of the 15th Century, indian Ocean History - click on maps!
Unit Calendar - spring 2017, empires and Encounters. Christopher Columbus from ted-ed. Global Commerce, rise of the portuguese Empire, early modern Unit Study sanskrit guide. Religion and Science, columbian Exchange Crash course Annotated course description, voyages: Trans-Atlantic Slave database. The Atlantic Slave trade from ted-ed.
When his mother had left us alone i thanked him for making my diagnosis so very much easier. He was suffering from the troubles arising from masturbation." (Emphasis added.). As recently as 1938, karl Menninger - the undisputed dean of American psychiatry in mid-century - declared: "In the unconscious mind, it masturbation always represents an aggression against someone." (Emphasis added.). None of psychiatry's classic mistakes - from masturbatory insanity and its cures with castration and clitoridectomy, to the disease of homosexuality and its compulsory treatment with "aversion therapy and to the attribution of the cause of schizophrenia to reverberating circuits in the frontal lobes and. Invariably, the false belief and the medical interventions it appears to justify serves the needs of the believers, especially the relatives of "patients" who seek control over the misbehavior of their "loved ones and the physicians who gain prestige and power by "diagnosing" and "treating". We fool ourselves if we believe that psychiatry's current popular delusions - such as the chemical causes and cures of depression, schizophrenia, suicide, and so forth - do not fit the same mold.
Copyright 2001, by The foundation for Economic Education. Szasz cybercenter for Liberty and Responsibility: Copyright by the author of each page, except where noted. Ap history and Psych students, prepare for colloege by learning proper Chicago Style citation: ml, make sure to use footnote style! You can. This Site and the citation Machine will do all the work for you. The, just click on insert, refernce, footnote. It is sooo easy these days. Always have a title page that is 12 font, title, your name, class period, date.
Insanity, essay - 389 Words
For a glimpse into this aspect of the medical-economics of the anti-masturbation business, the reader may consult the facsimile catalogue of the American Armamentarium Chirurgicum 1898 - introduction by james. Edmonson and Terry hambrecht (San Francisco, ca: Norman Publishing the Printer's devil, 1998) - which contains pictures and prizes of many anti-masturbation devices. Belief in masturbatory insanity and its treatment with castration and clitoridectomy was not an innocent error. This belief - like beliefs in other popular delusions - enhanced the identity and self-concept of the believers. Ostensibly, such beliefs assert facts; actually, they credential believers. Henry maudsley, the acknowledged founder of British psychiatry, stated: "The sooner he the masturbator sinks to his degraded rest, the better for the world which is well rid of him." For this and similar views he was hailed as a great humanitarian: A famed psychiatric. For Freud, too, sexual behaviors of all kinds, especially masturbation, were manifestations of maladies of which he was a master diagnostician entry and therapist. This is an account of a "case" he evidently considered one of his diagnostic triumphs: "One day i was to examine a young man, whom I did not know, at his mother's house. As he came towards me i was struck by a large stain on his trousers - made by albumen, as I could tell from its peculiar stiff edges.
The contemporary reader problems is likely to dismiss masturbation-as-disease as a medical mistake. However, scientific errors, especially obvious ones, are usually soon detected and corrected. Young males always experienced and displayed nocturnal emissions, the manifestations of normal pubertal male genital physiology. What, in the eighteenth century, made nocturnal emissions turn into the dreaded "symptoms" of dangerous "spermatorrhea"? The same thing that has turned youthful male exuberance into the dreaded symptoms of dangerous attention deficit disorder in our day: parental annoyance and anxiety combined with medical imperialism and furor therapeuticus. Today, diagnosing add and prescribing Ritalin is big business. A hundred years ago, it was big business to diagnose "spermatorrhea" and "treat" it with spike-lined rings. Fitted around the flaccid penis before bedtime, when an erection began, the spikes pressed into the swollen organ, caused pain, and awakened the sleeper, preventing ejaculation.
search of a scapegoat and found it in self-abuse. By the end of the 1700s, it was medical dogma that masturbation caused blindness, epilepsy, gonorrhea, tabes dorsalis, priapism, constipation, conjunctivitis, acne, painful menstruation, nymphomania, impotence, consumption, anemia, and of course insanity, melancholia, and suicide. How did physicians know and why did people believe that masturbation caused all these diseases? The same way that physicians now know and people believe that chemical imbalances cause mental diseases, such as attention deficit disorder: by "diagnosing" and "treating" the (involuntary, child) "patient" and by discovering "cures" for the disease. Among the widely accepted treatments of masturbation, the most important were restraining devices and mechanical appliances (about which more in a moment circumcision, cautery of the genitals, clitoridectomy, and castration. As recently as 1936, a widely used pediatric textbook recommended circumcision, double side-splints (such as those used to treat fracture of the femur and cauterization of the clitoris. Who were the beneficiaries of these medical miracles? Children and the insane - then, as now, the two groups of ideal (involuntary) "patients." Powerless vis-a-vis their relatives and doctors, minors and mental patients could not resist being fitted with grotesque appliances, encased in plaster of Paris, having their genitalia cauterized or denervated,.
Long ago i became persuaded that it is not possible to understand modern psychiatric practices unless they are seen as manifestations of a popular madness; and about that it is not possible to perceive them in such a light without being familiar with the history. In my previous column (January 2000) - on Krafft-Ebing and the birth of sexology - i presented an illustrative episode from that history. In this column, i shall briefly retell the story of what, until relatively recently, had been the most commonly diagnosed and most enthusiastically treated mental disease in the history of medicine, namely, masturbation. Masturbation: The Ideal Mental Illness, masturbation was - and, in principle, remains - the ideal mental illness. First, it is a form of behavior: that is, something people do, not something that happens to them. Second, it is a form of behavior universal to mankind, engaged in from early childhood this makes it ideally treatable, since behaviors can be controlled, especially in children who are powerless to resist the well-intentioned brutality of adults. Third, the act makes use of a sexual organ, ideally suited for attaching fantasies of great harm (as well as great pleasure) to its uses and abuses. Not surprisingly, masturbation is a disease of modernity. In antiquity and the dark Ages, people worried about real diseases, such as the plague and consumption.
Insanity, essay - 4975 Words
From, ideas on Liberty, remembering Masturbatory Insanity by Thomas. The following essay is reproduced here by permission of Sheldon Richman, Editor, Ideas on Liberty. Ideas on Liberty is published by, the foundation for Economic Education, irvington-on-Hudson, ny 10533. Ideas on Liberty, 50: 35-36 (may 2000. Remembering masturbatory insanity by, thomas. "Every age has its peculiar folly; some scheme, project, or phantasy into which it plunges, spurred on either by the love of gain, the necessity of excitement, or the mere force of imitation." -charles Mackay, "Extraordinary popular Delusions and the madness of Crowds". The contemporary mental health movement - epitomized by the dogmatic belief that "mental illness guaranteed is like any other illness" - is an instance of what Charles Mackay called a "crowd madness." It is in the very nature of such a popular delusion that, while. The belief's overwhelming popularity and the absence of authoritative opposition to it are viewed as proof of its validity.