In his "Trip report" paper, 1, prof. Ehud Shapiro (which focused the fgcs project on concurrent logic programming as the software foundation for the project) captured the rationale and motivations driving this huge project: "As part of Japan's effort to become a leader in the computer industry, the Institute for New Generation. These fifth Generation computers will be built around the concepts of logic programming. In order to refute the accusation that Japan exploits knowledge from abroad without contributing any of its own, this project will stimulate original research and will make its results available to the international research community.". The term "fifth generation" was intended to convey the system as being a leap beyond existing machines. In the history of computing hardware, computers using vacuum tubes were called the first generation; transistors and diodes, the second; integrated circuits, the third; and those using microprocessors, the fourth. Whereas previous computer generations had focused on increasing the number of logic elements in a single cpu, the fifth generation, it was widely believed at the time, would instead turn to massive numbers of cpus for added performance. The project was to create the computer over a ten-year period, after which it was considered ended and investment in a new "sixth generation" project would begin.
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releases overview of 3gpp release 99, summary of all Release 99 features. Etsi mobile competence centre, version xx/07/04 overview of 3gpp release 4, summary of all Release 4 features,.1.1.0 (draft) etsi mobile competence centre 2004 summary of all Release 5 features, etsi mobile competence centre, version 9 September 2003 overview of 3gpp release 6, summary. Retrieved 20 november 2014. Specification Groups closure of geran 3gpp membership 3gpp.900 Technical Specification Group working methods itu-t recommendation.130 gsm/3g fast Facts. Gsm suppliers' Association, 10 December 2006 resources: 3G/umts commercial Deployments, table listing commercially launched 3G/umts networks based on wcdma technology, umts forum cingular to deliver 3g wireless Broadband Services, Press Release, cingular Wireless, mediaroom 30 november 2004 External links edit. The, fifth Generation Computer Systems, present and Future (fgcs) was an initiative by japan's. Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a computer using massively parallel computing /processing. It was to be the result of a massive government/industry research project in Japan during summary the 1980s. It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence. There was also an unrelated Russian project also named as a fifth-generation computer (see.
The 3gpp specifications are transposed into deliverables by the Organizational Partners. Deployment edit 3gpp systems are deployed across much of the established gsm market. 23 24 They are primarily release 6 systems, but as of 2010, growing interest in hspa and lte is driving adoption of Release 7 and its successors. Since 2005, 3gpp systems were seeing deployment in the same plan markets as 3GPP2 systems (for example, north America 25 ). With lte the official successor to 3GPP2's cdma systems, 3gpp-based systems will eventually become the single global mobile standard. Citation needed see also edit references edit a b 3gpp specifications - releases (and phases and stages) 3gpp scope and Objectives, 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 mobile competence centre "3G.ip mission Statement". Archived from the original.
Stage 2 specifications define an architecture to support barbing the service requirements. Stage 3 specifications define an implementation of the architecture by lined specifying protocols in details. Test specifications are sometimes defined as stage 4, as they follow stage. Specifications are grouped into releases. A release consists of a set of internally consistent set of features and specifications. Timeframes are defined for each release by specifying freezing dates. Once a release is frozen, only essential corrections are allowed (i.e. Addition and modifications of functions are forbidden). Freezing dates are defined for each stage.
20 Specification work is done at wg and at tsg level: 21 the 3gpp wgs hold several meetings a year. They prepare and discuss change requests against 3gpp specifications. A change request accepted at wg level is called "agreed". The 3gpp tsgs hold plenary meetings quarterly. The tsgs can "approve" the change requests that were agreed at wg level. Some specifications are under the direct responsibility of tsgs and therefore, change requests can also be handled at tsg level. The approved change requests are subsequently incorporated in 3gpp specifications. 3gpp follows a three-stage methodology as defined in itu-t recommendation.130: 22 stage 1 specifications define the service requirements from the user point of view.
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It is also responsible for the coordination of the project. Sa is composed of six working groups. Ct (Core network and Terminals ct specifies the core network and terminal parts of 3GPP. It includes the core network terminal layer 3 protocols. It is composed of five working groups. Geran (GSM/edge radio access Network the closure of geran was announced in January 2016. 19 The specification work on legacy gsm/edge system was transferred to a new ran wg, ran6.
The 3gpp structure also includes a project coordination Group, which is the highest decision-making body. Its missions include the management of overall timeframe and work progress. Standardization process edit 3gpp standardization work is contribution-driven. Companies individual members participate through their membership to a 3gpp organizational Partner. As of April 2011, online 3gpp is composed of more than 370 individual members.
Heterogeneous networks (HetNet) improvements, coordinated Multi-point operation (comp). Release 12 2015 Q1 Enhanced Small Cells (higher order modulation, dual connectivity, cell discovery, self configuration carrier Aggregation (2 uplink carriers, 3 downlink carriers, fdd/tdd carrier aggregation mimo (3D channel modeling, elevation beamforming, massive mimo new and Enhanced Services (cost and range of mtc, d2D. Elevation beamforming / Full-Dimension mimo, indoor positioning. Release 14 2017 Q2 Energy Efficiency, location Services (lcs mission Critical Data over lte, mission Critical Video over lte, flexible mobile service Steering (fmss multimedia broadcast Supplement for Public Warning System (mbsp enhancement for tv service, massive internet of Things, cell Broadcast Service (CBS). Support for 5g vehicle-to-x service, ip multimedia core network subsystem (ims future railway mobile communication System 17 Each release incorporates hundreds of individual standards documents, each of which may have been through many revisions.
Current 3gpp standards incorporate the latest revision of the gsm standards. The documents are made available without charge on 3gpp's web site. The standards cover not only the radio part air Interface and Core network, but also billing information and speech coding down to source code level. Cryptographic aspects (such as authentication, confidentiality ) are also specified. 3GPP2 offers similar information about its system. Specification groups edit The 3gpp specification work is done in Technical Specification Groups (TSGs) and Working Groups (WGs). 18 There are three technical Specifications Groups, each of which consists of multiple wgs: ran (Radio access Network ran specifies the utran and the e-utran. It is composed of six working groups. Wg shorthand Scope Specifications ran wg1 ran1 Radio layer 1 specification List of specs ran wg2 ran2 Radio layer 2 and Radio layer 3 rr specification List of specs ran wg3 ran3 Iub Iur and iu specification utran o m requirements List of specs ran.
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Release 9 2009 Q4 saes enhancements, wimax and lte/ umts interoperability. Dual-Cell hsdpa with mimo, dual-Cell hsupa. Release 10 2011 Q1 lte advanced fulfilling imt advanced 4G requirements. Backwards compatible write with release 8 (LTE). Multi-cell hsdpa (4 carriers). Release 11 2012 Q3 Advanced ip interconnection of Services. Service layer interconnection between national operators/carriers as well as third party application providers.
Together with the market Representation Partners (MRPs) perform the following tasks: The maintenance of the partnership Project Agreement; The approval of applications for 3gpp partnership; take the decision against a possible dissolution of 3GPP. The Organizational Partners are: Organizational Partners Organization country/Region Website Association of Radio industries and Businesses (arib) Japan arib alliance for Telecommunications Industry solutions (atis) usa atis china communications Standards Association (ccsa) China ccsa european Telecommunications Standards Institute (etsi) Europe etsi telecommunications Standards development Society (tsdsi). As of June 2017, the market Representation Partners are: Standards edit 3gpp standards are structured as Releases. Discussion of 3gpp thus frequently refers to the functionality in one release or another. Version 8 Released 1 Info Phase 1 1992 gsm features Phase 2 1995 gsm features, efr codec, release 96 1997 Q1 gsm features,.4 kbit/s User Data rate, release 97 1998 Q1 gsm features, gprs angela release 98 1999 Q1 gsm features, amr, edge, gprs for. 13 This specification also focus on hspa (High Speed Packet Access evolution sim high-speed protocol and contactless front-end interface ( near field Communication enabling operators to deliver contactless services like mobile payments edge evolution. Release 8 2008 Q4 First lte release. New ofdma, fde and mimo based radio interface, not backwards compatible with previous cdma interfaces.
a global initiative that they named "3gip a third generation wireless standard that was "natively" Internet Protocol based. 6, initially, principal participants included British Telecom, france telecom, telecom Italia, and Nortel Networks, but were eventually joined by ntt docomo, bellSouth, telenor, and Lucent, Ericsson, motorola, nokia, and others. 7 A 3gip standards forum was instituted and standards began to be developed. The forum progressed into the 2000 time frame, up until at t wireless and British Telecom formed a strategic "partnership project" to facilitate "global roaming" between. With this business arrangement, gsm, the prevailing European standard was adopted as the basis of at t wireless' network evolution for North America. Very specifically, this included the deployment of gsm data capabilities,. Gprs, edge, and its evolution to umts. Organizational Partners edit The seven 3gpp organizational Partners are from Asia, europe and North America. Their aim is to determine the general policy and strategy of 3gpp and perform the following tasks: The approval and maintenance of the 3gpp scope; The maintenance of the partnership Project Description; take the decision to create or cease a technical Specification Groups, and approve.
5, contents, history edit. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project initiative eventually arose from a strategic initiative between. Nortel Networks and, at t wireless. In 1998 at t wireless was operating. Is-136 (tdma) wireless network in the United States. In 1997 Nortel Networks' wireless r d center in Richardson, texas, the wireless division. Bell Northern Research had developed a vision yardage for "an all. Internet Protocol (ip wireless network that went under the internal name "Cell Web". As the concept progressed, nortel launched the industry vision as "Wireless Internet".
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The 3rd Generation Partnership Project ( 3gpp ) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational Partners. The initial scope of 3gpp was to make a globally applicable third-generation ( 3G ) mobile phone 1 system specification based on evolved, global System for Mobile writing communications (GSM) specifications within the scope of the. International Mobile telecommunications-2000 project of the, international Telecommunication Union (ITU). The scope was later enlarged to include the development and maintenance of: 2 3gpp standardization encompasses Radio access Network, services and Systems Aspects, and Core network and Terminals. The project was established in December 1998 and should not be confused with 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 ( 3GPP2 which specifies standards for another 3G technology based. Is-95 (cdma commonly known as, cDMA2000. 4, the 3gpp support team (also known as the "Mobile competence centre is located at the. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (etsi) headquarters in the, sophia antipolis technology park in France.