44 Although this farming method was favored by the poor, it did require intensive labor, thus only large families could maintain such a system. 45 Rice paddies edit An Eastern-Han pottery model of a rice paddy field with farmers Han farmers in the yangzi river region of southern China often maintained paddy fields for growing rice. Every year, they would burn the weeds in the paddy field, drench it in water, sow rice by hand, and around harvest time cut the surviving weeds and drown them a second time. 46 In this system, the field lays fallow for much of the year and thus did not remain very fertile. 46 However, han rice farmers to the north around the huai river practiced the more advanced system of transplantation. 47 In this system, individual plants were given intensive care (perhaps in the same location as the paddy field their offshoots separated so that more water could be conserved, and the field could be heavily fertilized since winter crops were grown while the rice seedlings. 47 Mechanical and hydraulic engineering edit further information: Mechanical engineering Literary sources and archaeological evidence edit a han-dynasty pottery model of two men operating a winnowing machine with a crank handle and a tilt hammer used to pound grain. Evidence of Han-era mechanical engineering comes largely from the choice observational writings of sometimes disinterested Confucian scholars.
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80 bce) perhaps had a role in promoting this new system. 39 Rich families who owned oxen and large heavy moldboard iron plows greatly benefited from this new system. 40 However, poorer farmers who did not own oxen resorted to using teams of men to move a single plow, which was exhausting work. 40 The shop author cui shi (d. 170 CE) wrote in his Simin yueling that by the eastern Han Era (25220 CE) an improved plow was invented which needed only one man to control it, two oxen to pull it, had three plowshares, a seed box for the drills, a tool which. 41 Pit fields edit a western-Han pottery model of a sitting bull During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Han (r. 337 bce fan Shengzhi wrote a manual (i.e. The fan Shengzhi shu ) which described the pit field system ( aotian ). 42 43 In this system, every mou of farmland was divided into 3,840 grids which each had a small pit that was dug.8 cm (5.4 in) deep and.8 cm (5.4 in) wide and had good quality manure mixed into the soil. 42 Twenty seeds were sowed summer into each pit, which allegedly produced.6 L (20 oz ) of harvested grain per pit, or roughly 2,000 L (67,630 oz) per mou. 42 This system did not require oxen-driven plows or the most fertile land, since it could be employed even on sloping terrains where supplying water was difficult for other methods of farming.
34 Alternating fields edit further information: government of the han dynasty during Emperor wu's (r. 14187 bce) reign, the Grain Intendant Zhao guo invented the alternating fields system ( daitianfa ). 35 For every mou of land—i. A thin but elongated strip of land measuring.38 m (4.5 ft) wide and 331 m (1,086 ft) long, or an area of roughly 457 m2 (0.113 acres) 36 37 — three low-lying furrows ( quan ) that were each.23 m (0.75 ft) wide were sowed in straight lines with crop. 35 While weeding in the summer, the loose soil of the ridges ( long ) on either side of the furrows would gradually fall into the furrows, covering the sprouting crops and protecting them from wind and drought. 35 Since the position of the furrows and ridges were reversed by the next year, this process was called the alternating fields system. 35 a han-dynasty pottery model of a standing cow This system allowed crops to grow in straight lines from sowing to harvest, conserved moisture in the soil, and provided a stable annual yield for harvested crops. 38 Zhao guo first experimented with this system right outside the capital Chang'an, and once it proved successful, he sent out instructions for it to every commandery administrator, who were then responsible for disseminating these to the heads of every county, district, and hamlet. 38 Sadao nishijima speculates that the Imperial counselor presentation Sang Hongyang (d.
26 Mirrors and oil lamps were often made of either bronze or iron. 28 coin money minted during the han was made of either copper or copper and tin smelted together to make the bronze alloy. 29 Agriculture edit further information: Economy of the han dynasty, agriculture in China, and Sericulture tools and methods edit modern archaeologists have unearthed Han iron farming tools throughout China, from Inner Mongolia in the north to yunnan in the south. 30 The spade, shovel, pick, and plow were used for tillage, the hoe for weeding, the rake for loosening the soil, and the sickle for harvesting crops. 30 Depending on their size, han plows were driven by either one ox or two oxen. 31 Oxen were also used to pull the three-legged iron seed drill (invented in Han China by the 2nd century bce which enabled farmers to plant seeds in precise rows instead of casting them statement out by hand. 32 While artwork of the wei (220265 CE) and Jin (265420) periods show use of the harrow for breaking up chunks of soil after plowing, it perhaps first appeared in China during the eastern Han (25220 CE). 33 Irrigation works for agriculture included the use of water wells, artificial ponds and embankments, dams, canals, and sluice gates.
22 Besides charcoal made of wood, wang Zhongshu states that another furnace fuel used during the han were "coal cakes a mixture of coal powder, clay, and quartz. 23 Use of steel, iron, and bronze edit donald. Wagner writes that most domestic iron tools and implements produced during the han were made of cheaper and more brittle cast iron, whereas the military preferred to use wrought iron and steel weaponry due to their more durable qualities. 24 During the han dynasty, the typical.5 m (1.6 ft) bronze sword found in the warring States period was gradually replaced with an iron sword measuring roughly 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. 25 The ancient dagger-axe ( ge ) made of bronze was still used by han soldiers, although it was gradually phased out by iron spears and iron ji halberds. 26 even arrowheads, which were traditionally made of bronze, gradually only had a bronze tip and iron shaft, until the end of the han when the entire arrowhead was made solely of iron. 26 Farmers, carpenters, bamboo craftsmen, stonemasons, and rammed earth builders had at their disposal iron tools such as the plowshare, pickaxe, spade, shovel, hoe, sickle, axe, adze, hammer, chisel, knife, saw, scratch awl, and nails. 27 Common iron commodities found in Han dynasty homes included tripods, stoves, cooking pots, belt buckles, tweezers, fire tongs, scissors, kitchen knives, fish hooks, and needles.
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BC) dynasties were fired at high temperatures, but by the mid Western Han (206 bce 9 ad a brown-glazed ceramic was made which was fired at the low temperature of parts 800 C (1,470 F followed by a green-glazed ceramic which became popular in the eastern Han (25220. 15 Wang Zhongshu states that the light-green stoneware known as celadon was thought to exist only since the Three kingdoms period (220265 CE) onwards, but argues that ceramic shards found at Eastern Han (25220 CE) sites of Zhejiang province can be classified as celadon. 16 However, richard Dewar argues that true celadon was not created in China until the early song dynasty (9601279) when Chinese kilns were able to reach a minimum furnace temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F with a preferred range of 1,285 to 1,305 C (2,345 to 2,381 F) for. 17 Metallurgy edit further information: History of ferrous metallurgy and Economy of the han dynasty a suit of bronze relations scale mail armor from the han dynasty furnaces and smelting techniques edit a blast furnace converts raw iron ore into pig iron, which can be remelted. The earliest specimens of cast iron found in China date to the 5th century bce during the late Spring and Autumn period, yet the oldest discovered blast furnaces date to the 3rd century bce and the majority date to the period after Emperor. 14187 bce) established a government monopoly over the iron industry in 117 bce (most of the discovered iron works sites built before this date were merely foundries which recast iron that had been smelted elsewhere). 18 Iron ore smelted in blast furnaces during the han was rarely if ever cast directly into permanent molds; instead, the pig iron scraps were remelted in the cupola furnace to make cast iron.
19 Cupola furnaces utilized a cold blast traveling through tuyere pipes from the bottom and over the top where the charge of charcoal and pig iron was introduced. 19 The air traveling through the tuyere pipes thus became a hot blast once it reached the bottom of the furnace. 19 An Eastern-Han pair of iron scissors Although Chinese civilization lacked the bloomery, the han Chinese were able to make wrought iron when they injected too much oxygen into the cupola furnace, causing decarburization. 20 The han-era Chinese were also able to convert cast iron and pig iron into wrought iron and steel by using the finery forge and puddling process, the earliest specimens of such dating to the 2nd century bce and found at tieshengguo near mount Song. 21 The semisubterranean walls of these furnaces were lined with refractory bricks and had bottoms made of refractory clay.
9 The oldest known piece of paper with writing on it comes from the ruins of a chinese watchtower at Tsakhortei, alxa league, inner Mongolia, dated precisely to 110 ce when the han garrison abandoned the area following a nomadic xiongnu attack. 10 by the 3rd century, paper became one of China's chief writing mediums. 11 Ceramics edit further information: Chinese ceramics The han ceramics industry was upheld by private businesses as well as local government agencies. 12 Ceramics were used in domestic wares and utensils as well as construction materials for roof tiles and bricks. 13 Han dynasty grey pottery —its color derived from the clay that was used—was superior to earlier Chinese grey pottery due to the han people's use of larger kiln chambers, longer firing tunnels, and improved chimney designs.
14 Kilns of the han dynasty making grey pottery were able to reach firing temperatures above 1,000 C (1,830 F). 14 However, hard southern Chinese pottery made from a dense adhesive clay native only in the south (i.e. Guangdong, guangxi, hunan, jiangxi, fujian, zhejiang, and southern jiangsu ) was fired at even higher temperatures than grey pottery during the han. 14 Glazed pottery of the Shang (c. 1600 . 1050 bce) and Zhou (c.
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One can imagine the effect of this calamity on science. 2 Joseph needham (19001995 a late Professor from the University of Cambridge and author of the groundbreaking Science and civilisation in China series, stated that the "Han time (especially the later Han) was one of the relatively important periods as regards the history of science. 3 Writing materials edit further information: History of the han dynasty, history of paper, papyrus, and Traditional Chinese bookbinding The most common writing mediums found in archaeological digs from ancient sites predating the han period are shells and bones as well as bronzewares. 4 In the beginning of the han period, the chief writing mediums were bamboo (Chinese: ) and clay tablets, silk cloth, and rolled scrolls made of strips of bamboo sewn together writings with hempen string passed through drilled holes and secured with clay stamps. 5 The written characters on these narrow flat strips of bamboo were arranged into vertical columns. 6 While maps drawn in ink on flat silk cloths have been found in the tomb of the marquess of dai (interred in 168 bce at Mawangdui, hunan province the earliest known paper map found in China, dated 17941 bce and located at Fangmatan (near. 7 Yet Chinese hempen paper of the western Han and early eastern Han eras was of a coarse quality and used primarily as wrapping paper. 8 The papermaking process was not formally introduced until the eastern Han court eunuch paper cai lun (50121 CE) created a process in 105 where mulberry tree bark, hemp, old linens, and fish nets were boiled together to make a pulp that was pounded, stirred.
The han-era Chinese also wild employed several types of bridges to cross waterways and deep gorges, such as beam bridges, arch bridges, simple suspension bridges, and pontoon bridges. Han ruins of defensive city walls made of brick or rammed earth still stand today. Contents Modern perspectives on science and technology during Han edit a wine -heating stove made of bronze, dated to the western Han Jin guantao, a professor of the Institute of Chinese Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, fan Hongye, a research fellow with. 2 They compare it to the incredible pace of scientific and technological growth during the song dynasty (9601279). However, they also argue that without the influence of proto-scientific precepts in the ancient philosophy of Mohism, chinese science continued to lack a definitive structure: 2 From the middle and late eastern Han to the early wei and Jin dynasties, the net growth of ancient. If Mohism, rich in scientific thought, had rapidly grown and strengthened, the situation might have been very favorable to the development of a scientific structure. However, this did not happen because the seeds of the primitive structure of science were never formed. During the late eastern Han, disastrous upheavals again occurred in the process of social transformation, leading to the greatest social disorder in Chinese history.
and easy to produce. The invention of the wheelbarrow aided in the hauling of heavy loads. The maritime junk ship and stern-mounted steering rudder enabled the Chinese to venture out of calmer waters of interior lakes and rivers and into the open sea. The invention of the grid reference for maps and raised-relief map allowed the Chinese to better navigate their terrain. In medicine, they used new herbal remedies to cure illnesses, calisthenics to keep physically fit, and regulated diets to avoid diseases. Authorities in the capital were warned ahead of time of the direction of sudden earthquakes with the invention of the seismometer that was tripped by a vibration-sensitive pendulum device. To mark the passing of the seasons and special occasions, the han Chinese used two variations of the lunisolar calendar, which were established due to efforts in astronomy and mathematics. Han-era Chinese advancements in mathematics include the discovery of square roots, cube roots, the pythagorean theorem, gaussian elimination, the horner scheme, improved calculations of pi, and negative numbers. Hundreds of new roads and canals were built to facilitate transport, commerce, tax collection, communication, and movement of military troops.
Chinese science and technology. There were great innovations in metallurgy. In addition to, zhou-dynasty China's (c. Bce) previous inventions of the blast furnace and cupola furnace to make pig iron and cast iron, respectively, the han period saw the development of steel and wrought iron by use of the finery forge and puddling process. With the drilling of deep boreholes into the earth, the Chinese used not only derricks to lift brine up to the surface summary to be boiled into salt, but also set up bamboo-crafted pipeline transport systems which brought natural gas as fuel to the furnaces. Smelting techniques were enhanced with inventions such as the waterwheel -powered bellows ; the resulting widespread distribution of iron tools facilitated the growth of agriculture. For tilling the soil and planting straight rows of crops, the improved heavy-moldboard plough with three iron plowshares and sturdy multiple-tube iron seed drill were invented in the han, which greatly enhanced production yields and thus sustained population growth. The method of supplying irrigation ditches with water was improved with the invention of the mechanical chain pump powered by the rotation of a waterwheel or draft animals, which could transport irrigation water up elevated terrains. The waterwheel was also used for operating trip hammers in pounding grain and in rotating the metal rings of the mechanical-driven astronomical armillary sphere representing the celestial sphere around the earth.
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A gilded bronze oil lamp in the shape of a female servant, dated 2nd century bce, found in the tomb. Dou wan, wife to the han prince. 113 bce its sliding shutter allows for adjustments in the direction and brightness of light while it also traps smoke within the body, an father's anti-pollutant design. 1, the, han dynasty (206 bce 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 bce 9 ce, when the capital was. Chang'an xin dynasty of, wang Mang (r. Ad 923 and Eastern Han (25220 ce, when the capital was at, luoyang, and after 196. Xuchang witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern.