36 nevertheless, subsequent generations of radical critics celebrated Gogol (the author in whose world a nose roams the streets of the russian capital) as a great realist, a reputation decried by the Encyclopædia britannica as "the triumph of Gogolesque irony". 37 The period of modernism saw a revival of interest in and a change of attitude towards Gogol's work. One of the pioneering works of Russian formalism was Eichenbaum 's reappraisal of "The overcoat". In the 1920s, a group of Russian short story writers, known as the serapion Brothers, placed Gogol among their precursors and consciously sought to imitate his techniques. The leading novelists of the period notably yevgeny zamyatin and mikhail Bulgakov also admired Gogol and followed in his footsteps. In 1926, Vsevolod meyerhold staged The government Inspector as a "comedy of the absurd situation revealing to his fascinated spectators a corrupt world of endless self-deception. In 1934, Andrei bely published the most meticulous study of Gogol's literary techniques up to that date, in which he analyzed the colours prevalent in Gogol's work depending on the period, his impressionistic use of verbs, expressive discontinuity of his syntax, complicated rhythmical patterns. Based on this work, vladimir Nabokov published a summary account of Gogol's masterpieces in 1944.
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Like sterne before him, gogol was a great destroyer of prohibitions and of romantic illusions. He undermined Russian Romanticism by making vulgarity reign where only the sublime and the beautiful had reigned. 33 "Characteristic belfast of Gogol is a sense of boundless superfluity that is soon revealed as utter emptiness and a rich comedy that suddenly turns into metaphysical horror." 34 His stories often interweave pathos and mockery, while " The tale of How ivan ivanovich quarreled with. Gogol burning the manuscript of the second part of dead souls, by Ilya repin It stunned Gogol when many quantify interpreted The government Inspector as an indictment of tsarism despite nicholas I's patronage of the play. Gogol himself, an adherent of the Slavophile movement, believed in a divinely inspired mission for both the house of Romanov and the russian Orthodox Church. Similar to fyodor Dostoyevsky, gogol sharply disagreed with those russians who preached constitutional monarchy and the disestablishment of the Orthodox Church. After defending autocracy, serfdom, and the Orthodox Church in his book selected Passages from Correspondence with his Friends (1847 gogol came under attack from his former patron Vissarion Belinsky. The first Russian intellectual to publicly preach the economic theories of Karl Marx, belinsky accused Gogol of betraying his readership by defending the status quo. 35 Influence and interpretations edit even before the publication of dead souls, belinsky recognized Gogol as the first realist writer in the language and the head of the natural School, to which he also assigned such younger or lesser authors as Goncharov, turgenev, dmitry Grigorovich. Gogol himself seemed to be skeptical about the existence of such a literary movement. Although he recognized "several young writers" who "have shown a particular desire to observe real life he upbraided the deficient composition and style of their gaza works.
It took enormous efforts to save andreyev's original work from destruction; as of 2014 it stands in front of the house where gogol died. 29 Among the illustrators of dead souls was pyotr sokolov. Mirsky characterized Gogol's universe as "one of the most marvellous, unexpected in the strictest sense, original 30 worlds ever created by an artist of words". 31 The other main characteristic of Gogol's writing is his 'impressionist' vision of reality and people. Citation needed he saw the outer world romantically metamorphosed, a singular gift particularly evident from the fantastic spatial transformations in his Gothic stories, " a terrible vengeance " and " a bewitched Place ". His pictures of nature are strange mounds of detail resumes heaped on detail, resulting in an unconnected chaos of things. His people are caricatures, drawn with the method of the caricaturist which is to exaggerate salient features and to reduce them to geometrical pattern. But these cartoons have a convincingness, a truthfulness, and inevitability attained as a rule by slight but definitive strokes of unexpected reality that seems to beggar the visible world itself. 32 need"tion to verify the aspect under which the mature gogol sees reality is expressed by the russian word poshlost', which means something similar to "triviality, banality, inferiority moral and spiritual, widespread in some group or society.
26 Post-2009 gravesite of nikolai gogol in presentation novodevichy cemetery, moscow, russia his body was discovered lying face down, which gave rise to the story that Gogol had been buried alive. The authorities moved the golgotha stone to the new gravesite, but removed the cross; in 1952 the soviets replaced the stone with a bust of Gogol. The stone was later reused for the tomb of Gogol's admirer mikhail Bulgakov. In 2009, in connection with the bicentennial of Gogol's birth, the bust was moved by whom? to the museum at novodevichy cemetery, and the original Golgotha stone was returned, along with a copy of the original Orthodox cross. 27 The first Gogol monument in Moscow, a symbolist statue on Arbat Square, represented the sculptor nikolay andreyev 's idea of Gogol rather than the real man. 28 Unveiled in 1909, the statue received praise from Ilya repin and from leo tolstoy as an outstanding projection of Gogol's tortured personality. Joseph Stalin did not like it, however, and the statue was replaced by a more orthodox Socialist realism monument in 1952.
Konstantinovsky seems to have strengthened in Gogol the fear of perdition by insisting on the sinfulness of all his imaginative work. Exaggerated ascetic practices undermined his health and he fell into a state of deep depression. On the night of 24 February 1852 he burned some of his manuscripts, which contained most of the second part of dead souls. He explained this as a mistake, a practical joke played on him by the devil. Soon thereafter, he took to bed, refused all food, and died in great pain nine days later. Gogol was mourned in the saint Tatiana church at the moscow University before his burial and then buried at the danilov monastery, close to his fellow Slavophile Aleksey khomyakov. His grave was marked by a large stone (Golgotha topped by a russian Orthodox cross. 25 In 1931, moscow authorities decided to demolish the monastery and had Gogol's remains transferred to the novodevichy cemetery.
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Concurrently, he worked at other tasks recast Taras Bulba and The portrait, completed his second comedy, marriage ( Zhenitba wrote the fragment Rome and his most famous short story, presentation " The overcoat ". In 1841 the first part of dead souls was ready, and Gogol took it to russia to supervise its printing. It appeared in Moscow in 1842, under the title, imposed by the censorship, of The Adventures of Chichikov. The book instantly established his reputation as the greatest prose writer in the language. Creative decline and death edit One of several essay portraits of Gogol by fyodor Moller (1840) After the triumph of dead souls, gogol's contemporaries came to regard him as a great satirist who lampooned the unseemly sides of Imperial Russia.
Little did they know that dead souls was but the first part of a planned modern-day counterpart to the divine comedy of Dante. Citation needed The first part represented the Inferno ; the second part would depict the gradual purification and transformation of the rogue chichikov under the influence of virtuous publicans and governors purgatory. 24 In April 1848 Gogol returned to russia from a pilgrimage to jerusalem and passed his last years in restless movement throughout the country. While visiting the capitals, he stayed with friends such as mikhail Pogodin and Sergey aksakov. During this period, he also spent much time with his old Ukrainian friends, maksymovych and Osyp Bodiansky. He intensified his relationship with a starets or spiritual elder, matvey konstantinovsky, whom he had known for several years.
The comedy, a violent satire of Russian provincial bureaucracy, was staged thanks only to the intervention of the emperor, nicholas. From 1836 to 1848 Gogol lived abroad, travelling through Germany and Switzerland. Gogol spent the winter of 183637 in Paris, 22 among Russian expatriates and Polish exiles, frequently meeting the polish poets Adam Mickiewicz and Bohdan Zaleski. He eventually settled in Rome. For much of the twelve years from 1836 Gogol was in Italy developing an adoration for Rome.
He studied art, read Italian literature and developed a passion for opera. He mingled with Russian and other visitors, and in 1838 met count Joseph vielhorskiy, the 23-year-old son of the official who had brought Gogol's government Inspector to the attention of the emperor. Vielhorsky was travelling in hopes of curing his tuberculosis. Gogol and vielhorsky fell in love, a relationship which was soon severed as vielhorsky died in 1839. Gogol left an account of this time in his Nights at the villa : "if my death could restore him to health, with what readiness I would have rushed toward it!" 23 Pushkin 's death produced a strong impression on Gogol. His principal work during years following Pushkin's death was the satirical epic dead souls.
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During this time he also developed a close and lifelong friendship with another Ukrainian, the historian and naturalist mykhaylo maksymovych. 19 In 1834 Gogol was made Professor of Medieval History at the University. Petersburg, a job for which he had no qualifications. He turned in a performance ludicrous enough to warrant satiric treatment in one shredder of his own stories. After an introductory lecture made up of brilliant generalizations which the 'historian' had prudently prepared and memorized, he gave up all pretence at erudition and teaching, missed two lectures out of three, and when he did appear, muttered unintelligibly through his teeth. At the final examination, he sat in utter silence with a black handkerchief wrapped around his head, simulating a toothache, while another professor interrogated the students." 20 This academic venture proved a failure and he resigned his chair in 1835. Commemorative plaque on his house in Rome between 18 Gogol worked with great energy, and though almost all his work has in one way or another its sources in these apple four years of contact with Pushkin, he had not yet decided that his ambitions were. During this time, the russian critics Stepan Shevyrev and Vissarion Belinsky, contradicting earlier critics, reclassified Gogol from a ukrainian to a russian writer. 16 It was only after the presentation at the saint Petersburg State Theatre, on, of his comedy The government Inspector ( revizor ) 21 that he finally came to believe in his literary vocation.
15 he followed it in 1832 with a second volume, and in 1835 by two volumes of stories entitled Mirgorod, as well as by two volumes of miscellaneous prose entitled Arabesques. At this time russian editors and critics such as nikolai polevoy and nikolai nadezhdin saw in Gogol the emergence of a ukrainian, rather than Russian, writer, using his works to illustrate supposed differences between Russian and Ukrainian national characters. 16 The themes and style of these early prose works by gogol, as well as his later drama, were similar to the work of Ukrainian writers and dramatists novel who were his contemporaries and friends, including Hryhory kvitka-osnovyanenko and Vasily narezhny. However, gogol's satire was much more sophisticated and unconventional. 17 At this time, gogol developed a passion for Ukrainian history and tried to obtain an appointment to the history department at kiev university. Despite the support of Pushkin and Sergey uvarov, the russian minister of education, his appointment was blocked by a kyivan bureaucrat on the grounds that Gogol was unqualified. 18 His fictional story taras Bulba, based on the history of Ukrainian cossacks, was the result of this phase in his interests.
ambition. Equally early he developed a talent for mimicry, which later made him a matchless reader of his own works and induced him to toy with the idea of becoming an actor. In 1828, on leaving school, gogol came to saint Petersburg, full of vague but glowingly ambitious hopes. He had hoped for literary fame, and brought with him a romantic poem of German idyllic life hans Küchelgarten. He had it published, at his own expense, under the name of "V. Alov." The magazines he sent it to almost universally derided. He bought all the copies and destroyed them, swearing never to write poetry again. Gogol was in touch with the "literary aristocracy had a story published in Anton Delvig 's Northern Flowers, was taken up by vasily Zhukovsky and pyotr Pletnyov, and (in 1831) was introduced to pushkin. Literary development edit In 1831 Gogol brought out the first volume of his Ukrainian stories ( evenings on a farm near dikanka which met with immediate success.
Contents Early life edit gogol was born in the reviews ukrainian Cossack village of Sorochyntsi, 4 in Poltava governorate of the russian Empire, present-day ukraine. His mother descended from leonty kosyarovsky, an officer of the lubny regiment in 1710. His father Vasily gogol-Yanovsky, a descendant of Ukrainian Cossacks (see lyzohub family ) and who died when Gogol was 15 years old, belonged to the 'petty gentry wrote poetry in Ukrainian and Russian, and was an amateur Ukrainian-language playwright. As was typical of the left-bank ukrainian gentry of the early nineteenth century, the family spoke ukrainian as well as Russian. As a child, gogol helped stage ukrainian-language plays in his uncle's home theater. 14 In 1820, gogol went to a school of higher art in nezhin (now nizhyn Gogol State University ) and remained there until 1828. It was there that he began writing.
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For other uses, see. Nikolai vasilievich Gogol a ( ) was a russian speaking dramatist of, ukrainian origin., although Gogol was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the preeminent figures of the natural school of, russian literary realism, later critics have found in his work a fundamentally. The overcoat nevsky prospekt. His early works, such. Evenings on a farm near dikanka, were influenced by his Ukrainian upbringing, ukrainian culture and folklore. 12 13, his later writing satirised political corruption in the. Russian Empire the government with Inspector, dead souls ). The novel Taras Bulba (1835) and the play marriage (1842 along with the short stories " diary of a madman " The tale of How ivan ivanovich quarreled with ivan nikiforovich " The portrait " and " The carriage are also among his best-known works.