These two versions also differ from each other in their readings of numerous words. 15 Scholars differ in their explanation of these differences, and no consensus has emerged. 15 Kerrigan suggests that the 1623 Folio version of Othello and a number of other plays may have been cleaned-up relative to the quarto to conform with the 1606 Act to restrain Abuses, which made it an offence 'in any Stage-play, interlude, shew, maygame,. 16 This is not incompatible with the suggestion that the quarto is based on an early version of the play, whilst the folio represents Shakespeare's revised version. 15 It may also be that the quarto was cut in the printing house to meet a fixed number of pages. 2 Most modern editions are based on the longer Folio version, but often incorporate quarto readings of words when the folio text appears to be in error. 17 quartos were also published in 1630, 1655, 1681, 1695, 16Iago versus Othello edit Although its title suggests that the tragedy belongs primarily to Othello, iago plays an important role in the plot. He reflects the archetypal villain, and has the biggest share of the dialogue.
othello act 2, summary
11 12 Date and context edit title page of the first quarto (1622) The earliest mention of the play is found in a 1604 revels Office account, which records that on "Hallamas day, being the first of nouembar. The kings maiesties plaiers" performed "A Play in the banketinghouse at Whit Hall Called The moor of Venis." The work is attributed to "Shaxberd." The revels account was first printed by peter Cunningham in 1842, and, while its authenticity was once challenged, is now regarded. 13 Based on its style, the play is usually essay dated 1603 or 1604, but arguments have been made for dates as early as 1601 or 1602. 2 14 The play was entered into the register of the Stationers Company on, by Thomas Walkley, and was first published in quarto format by him in 1622: "Tragœdy of Othello, the moore of Venice. As it hath beene diuerse times acted at the Globe, and at the Black-Friers, by his maiesties Seruants. Written by william Shakespeare. Nicholas okes for Thomas Walkley, and are to be sold at his shop, at the eagle and Child, in Brittans Bursse, 1622." The first page of Othello from the first Folio, printed in 1623 One year later, the play was included among the plays. However, the version in the folio is rather different in length, and in wording: as the editors of the folger edition explain: "The folio play has about 160 lines that do not appear in the quarto. Some of these cluster together in quite extensive passages. The folio also lacks a scattering of about a dozen lines or part-lines that are to be found in the quarto.
He is arrested and dies after being tortured. Cinthio's "Ensign's Wife" (the play's Emilia survives her husband's death to tell her story. 6 Cinthio's "Moor" is the model for literature Shakespeare's Othello, but some researchers believe the poet also took inspiration from the several moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England circa 1600. 7 Another possible source was the description of Africa by leo africanus. The book was an enormous success in Europe, and was translated into many other languages, 8 remaining a definitive reference work for decades (and to some degree, centuries) afterwards. 9 An English translation by john Pory appeared in 1600 under the title a geographical Historie of Africa, written in Arabicke and Italian by iohn leo a more. In which form Shakespeare may have seen it and reworked hints in creating the character of Othello. 10 While supplying the source of the plot, the book offered nothing of the sense of place of Venice or Cyprus. For knowledge of this, Shakespeare may have used Gasparo contarini 's The commonwealth and government of Venice, in Lewes Lewkenor 's 1599 translation.
Cinthio describes each gruesome blow, and, when the book lady is dead, the "Ensign" and the "Moor" place her lifeless body upon her bed, smash her skull, and cause the cracked ceiling above the bed to collapse upon her, giving the impression its falling business rafters caused. In Cinthio, the two murderers escape detection. The "Moor" then misses Desdemona greatly, and comes to loathe the sight of the "Ensign". He demotes him, and refuses to have him in his company. The "Ensign" then seeks revenge by disclosing to the "Squadron leader" the "Moor's" involvement in Desdemona's death. The two depart Cyprus for Venice, and denounce the "Moor" to the venetian seignory; he is arrested, taken to venice, and tortured. He refuses to admit his guilt and is condemned to exile. Desdemona's relatives eventually find and kill him. The "Ensign however, continues to escape detection in Desdemona's death, but engages in other crimes while in Venice.
4 Cinthio's tale has been described as a "partly racist warning" about the dangers of miscegenation. 5 While Shakespeare closely followed Cinthio's tale in composing Othello, he departed from it in some details. Brabantio, roderigo, and several minor characters are not found in Cinthio, for example, and Shakespeare's Emilia takes part in the handkerchief mischief while her counterpart in Cinthio does not. Unlike in Othello, in Cinthio, the "Ensign" (the play's Iago) lusts after Desdemona and is spurred to revenge when she rejects him. Shakespeare's opening scenes are unique to his tragedy, as is the tender scene between Emilia and Desdemona as the lady prepares for bed. Shakespeare's most striking departure from Cinthio is the manner of his heroine's death. In Shakespeare, othello suffocates Desdemona, but in Cinthio, the "Moor" commissions the "Ensign" to bludgeon his wife to death with a sand-filled stocking.
The best of William
When Othello mentions the handkerchief as proof, Emilia realizes what her husband Iago has done, and she exposes him, whereupon he kills her. Othello, belatedly realising Desdemona's innocence, stabs Iago but not fatally, saying that Iago is a devil, and he would rather have him live the rest of his life in pain. Iago refuses to explain his motives, vowing to remain silent from that moment. Lodovico apprehends both Iago and Othello for the murders of Roderigo, emilia, and Desdemona, but Othello commits suicide. Lodovico appoints Cassio, othello's successor and exhorts, to punish Iago justly. He then denounces Iago for his actions and leaves to tell the others of what has transgressed.
Sources edit Othello is an adaptation of the Italian writer Cinthio 's tale "Un Capitano moro" a moorish Captain from his Gli hecatommithi (1565 a collection of one hundred tales in the style of giovanni boccaccio 's Decameron. No english translation of Cinthio was available in Shakespeare's lifetime, and verbal echoes in Othello are closer to the Italian original than to gabriel Chappuy 's 1584 French translation. Cinthio's tale may have been based on an actual incident occurring in Venice about 1508. 2 It also resembles an incident described in the earlier tale of " The Three apples one of the stories biographies narrated in the One Thousand and One nights ( Arabian Nights ). 3 Desdemona is the only named character in Cinthio's tale, with his few other characters identified only as the " moor the "Squadron leader the "Ensign and the "Ensign's Wife" (corresponding to the play's Othello, cassio, iago and Emilia). Cinthio drew a moral (which he placed in the mouth of Desdemona) that it is unwise for European women to marry the temperamental men of other nations.
Enraged and hurt, Othello resolves to kill his wife and tells Iago to kill Cassio. Othello proceeds to make desdemona's life miserable, hitting her in front of visiting Venetian nobles. Meanwhile, roderigo complains that he has received no results from Iago in return for his money and efforts to win Desdemona, but Iago convinces him to kill Cassio. Act v edit painting by william Salter of Othello weeping over Desdemona's body. Oil on canvas,. Roderigo, having been manipulated by iago, attacks Cassio in the street after Cassio leaves bianca's lodgings.
During the scuffle, iago comes from behind Cassio and badly cuts his leg. In the darkness, iago manages to hide his identity, and when Lodovico and Gratiano hear Cassio's cries for help, iago joins them. When Cassio identifies Roderigo as one of his attackers, iago secretly stabs Roderigo to stop him revealing the plot. Iago then accuses bianca of the failed conspiracy to kill Cassio. Othello confronts Desdemona, and then strangles her in their bed. When Emilia arrives, desdemona defends her husband before dying, and Othello accuses Desdemona of adultery. Emilia calls for help. The former governor Montano arrives, with Gratiano and Iago.
Full text and plot summary of Tales from, shakespeare
When london Desdemona drops a handkerchief (the first gift given to her by Othello emilia finds it, and gives it to her husband Iago, at his request, unaware of what he plans to do with. Othello reenters and vows with Iago for the death of Desdemona and Cassio, after which he makes Iago his lieutenant. Act iii, scene iii is considered to be the turning point of the play as it is the scene in which Iago successfully sows the seeds of doubt in Othello's mind, inevitably sealing Othello's fate. Act iv edit iago plants the handkerchief in Cassio's lodgings, then tells Othello to watch Cassio's reactions while iago questions him. Iago goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with bianca, a local courtesan, but whispers her name so quietly that Othello believes the two men are talking about Desdemona. Later, bianca accuses Cassio of giving her a second-hand gift which he had received from another lover. Othello sees this, and Iago convinces him that Cassio received the handkerchief from Desdemona.
Othello orders a general celebration and leaves to consummate his marriage with Desdemona. In his absence, iago gets Cassio drunk, and then persuades Roderigo to draw Cassio into a fight. Montano tries to calm an angry and drunk cassio better down, but end up fighting one another. Montano is injured in the fight. Othello reenters and questions the men as to what happened. Othello blames Cassio for the disturbance and strips him of his rank. Iago persuades Cassio to importune desdemona to convince her husband to reinstate cassio. Act iii edit iago now persuades Othello to be suspicious of Cassio and Desdemona.
of Venice's guards, who prevent violence. News has arrived in Venice that the turks are going to attack cyprus, and Othello is therefore summoned to advise the senators. Brabantio has no option but to accompany Othello to the duke's residence, where he accuses Othello of seducing Desdemona by witchcraft. Othello defends himself before the duke of Venice, brabantio's kinsmen Lodovico and Gratiano, and various senators. Othello explains that Desdemona became enamoured of him for the sad and compelling stories he told of his life before venice, not because of any witchcraft. The senate is satisfied, once desdemona confirms that she loves Othello, but Brabantio leaves saying that Desdemona will betray othello: "look to her, moor, if thou hast eyes to see she has deceived her father, and may thee (Act i, sc 3). Iago, still in the room, takes note of Brabantio's remark. By order of the duke, othello leaves Venice to command the venetian armies against invading Turks on the island of Cyprus, accompanied by his new wife, his new lieutenant Cassio, his ensign Iago, and Iago's wife, emilia, as Desdemona's attendant. Act ii edit The party arrives in Cyprus to find that a storm has destroyed the turkish fleet.
Othello, general in the roles venetian military, desdemona. Othello's wife; daughter of Brabantio, iago, othello's trusted, but jealous and traitorous ensign. Cassio, othello's loyal and most beloved captain. Bianca, cassio's lover, emilia, iago's wife and Desdemona's maidservant Brabantio venetian senator and Desdemona's father (can also be called Brabanzio) Roderigo dissolute venetian, in love with Desdemona doge of Venice Gratiano brabantio's brother Lodovico brabantio's kinsman and Desdemona's cousin Montano othello's Venetian predecessor in the. Synopsis edit Othello costume illustration by percy Anderson for Costume fanciful, historical and Theatrical, 1906 Act i edit roderigo, a wealthy and dissolute gentleman, complains to his friend Iago, an ensign, that Iago has not told him about the secret marriage between Desdemona, the daughter. Roderigo is upset because he loves Desdemona and had asked her father for her hand in marriage. Iago hates Othello for promoting a younger man named Cassio above him, whom Iago considers less capable a soldier than himself, and tells Roderigo that he plans to use Othello for his own advantage. Iago convinces Roderigo to wake brabantio and tell him about his daughter's elopement.
Othello, moor of Venice by william
Play by Shakespeare, this article is about Shakespeare's play. For the board game, see. For other uses, see, othello (disambiguation). Othello the Tragedy of Othello, the moor of Venice ) is a tragedy. William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603. It is based on the story. Un Capitano moro a moorish Captain by, cinthio, a disciple of, boccaccio, first published in 1565. The real story revolves around its two central characters: Othello, a, moorish general in the, venetian army and his unfaithful ensign, iago. Given its varied and enduring themes of racism, love, jealousy, betrayal, revenge and repentance, othello is still often performed in professional and community theatre alike, and has been the source for numerous operatic, film, and literary adaptations.