This interview schedule was tested by pilot study on 35 obese patients attending geriatric clinic in Urban health Center. Appropriate changes were done based on pilot study and the interview schedule was finalized. Voluntary consent form was prepared in English, hindi and taking, inclusion and exclusion criteria into consideration, total 350 overweight and obese subjects were selected by employing Systemic random sampling method. The subjects were categorized according to western Pacific Region of who criteria5 pertaining to obesity (wpro criteria, 2000) into following groups: bmi 23 -24.99kg/m2 as overweight; bmi.99 Kg/m2 as Obesity I; bmi 30 Kg/m2 as Obesity ii (Morbid Obesity).Home visits were done between. The information was collected about various socioeconomic factors, family history, addiction, exercise, associated disorders, life style etc. On preformed, pre tested interview schedule by investigator himself.
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Unfortunately, this population has not been researched in detail. The present study was carried out to assess self image and co-morbidities associated with obesity and also to identify the area that needs urgent attention to modify their life style. Material and Methods, the study was conducted at Cheetah Camp urban slum which is a field practice area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, of tn medical College, mumbai, india. This is situated at an eastern suburb of Mumbai which comes under the jurisdiction of m east Ward of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. The population of Cheetah Camp consists of people who have migrated from different parts of India, mainly from Uttar Pradesh, bihar, west Bengal, madhya pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. They have migrated to mumbai in search of job and are now engaged in small scale industries like zari work, bag making, mat weaving, carpentry, tailoring etc. Most of the men are self employed and women are house wives, maid servants or vegetable vendors. Study population was selected from obese patients of age 40 years e present community based descriptiveepidemiological study was conducted during the period of October 2011 to december tal Population of Study Area 1, 13,000.Population 40 years 20,340 (Applying national demographic parameters)Prevalence of Obesity 40 years. Expected number of obese patients in study population 2,848 taking 10 of expected patients 284.8, and applying for attrition losses (20)Sample size (n) / 350. So, total 350 obese patients were involved (bmi 23).Semi structured interview schedule was constructed relevant magazine to the study.
A galaxy of psychological traits appears to result from the obesity related obsessive concern with self image, such passivity, expectation of rejection, and progressive withdrawal. Obesity has an important relationship with psychosocial conditions, such as low self-esteem which can lead to depression2. Depression may tend to make obesity self perpetuating. Obesity has been traditionally considered as a disease of affluence. High prevalence of malnutrition in people belonging to low socio-economic strata in developing countries led to the assumption that obesity will not be margaret a crucial problem in them. Whereas rural population usually has low risk of development of obesity in India3 their migration to metropolitan cities exposes them to several adverse lifestyle and environmental influences. In cities they usually settle down in urban slums, and take to daily wage jobs. Several lifestyle alterations result from this transition: changes from their traditional penurious eating habits, exposure to severe stress, decreased physical activity, and increase in smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol intake.
We are unanimous in our belief that obesity is a hazard to health and detrimental to well being. It is common enough to constitute one of the most important medical and public health problems of our lifetime, whether we judge importance by shorter expectation of life, increased morbidity or cost to the community in terms of both money and anxiety. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in India in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5 of the country's population1. India is currently facing a double burden of disease, while we continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, we are now experiencing a rapid upsurge in non-communicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban obesity. The first adverse effects of obesity to emerge in population are hypertension, hyperlipidemias and glucose intolerance, while coronary heart disease and the long term complications of diabetes, such as renal failure begin to emerge several years later. It is matter of time before same mortality rates for such diseases will be seen in developing countries as those prevailing 30 years ago in industrialized countries. Obesity not only affects the individual pathologically but also psychologically. People who are obese are more psychologically affected than non-obese people, particularly those patients who are obese in adolescence.
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As a chronic disease, prevalent in both developed and developing countries, and affecting both children and adults replacing the more traditional public health concerns including under-nutrition. For industrialized countries, it has been suggested that such increase in body weight have been caused primarily by reduced levels of physical activity, rather than by changes in food intake or other factors. The present study resume was carried out to assess the various co-morbidities associated with obesity and to assess self-esteem score of obese patients in an urban slum of Mumbai. A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted at Cheetah Camp urban slum which is a field practice area of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, tn medical College, mumbai, india. Obese and overweight patients above 40 years of age were included in this study.
The information was gathered by personal interview using semi-structured questionnaires. Out of 350 subjects 163 (46.57) were males. Mean Self-esteem score was.47 Patients having high body mass index had poor control over blood pressure and blood sugar. Thus society for elderly should be formed where various life style changes to prevent geriatric problems including obesity and associated co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, etc. Keywords: co-morbidities, Obesity, self-esteem, Urban Slum, cite this paper: Bhuwan Sharma, hemant Mahajan,. Suryawanshi, amit Bhondve, "Assessment of co-morbidities and Self Esteem in Obese population of Urban Slum of Mumbai international journal of Prevention and Treatment, vol.
Keep data — write down the numbers and have your child enter it on the chart. (Children love to graph their progress — its very affirming to them.). Praise and reward progress each week, even if progress is small, and focus on the idea of personal best. Slow and steady progress in the right direction is our goal. Our very own education specialist Alice wellborn is now a regular contributor at t and we are thrilled to share her wise words with all of you. Alice is a school psychologist and the author of the amazingly helpful book no more parents Left Behind.
Get the book at: m/ * Through January 5th Alice has placed her book at a very special value, now is the time to get a copy of your very own! You can follow Alice on Facebook. Bhuwan Sharma 1, hemant Mahajan 2,. Suryawanshi 1, amit Bhondve 1 1Department of Community medicine, tn medical College, mumbai, india 2Department of Community medicine, rcsm gmc kolhapur, India. Correspondence to: Hemant Mahajan, department of Community medicine, rcsm gmc kolhapur, India. Email: Copyright 2012 Scientific academic Publishing. Abstract, obesity is perhaps the most prevalent form of malnutrition.
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And if you have a child who is capable of high achievement in school, dont reward him for anything less than that high achievement. Assignment: Personal Yardsticks. Pick something that is measurable — something you can count: number shredder of words spelled correctly on the Friday test, number of times homework assignments and materials came home that week, how many minutes it took to complete homework, number of positive marks on the behavior. Write down where your child is right now (for example, 10 words out of 20 spelled correctly on average) and where you would like him to be at the end of the quarter (maybe 13 words — remember, were not going for perfection!). Take a sheet of graph paper and set up a chart. For the spelling words example, you would put week 1, week 2, week 3 and so on across the horizontal axis, and the number 1-20 on the vertical axis. For the homework completion example, you would put each day of the week across the horizontal axis, and the number of minutes on the vertical axis.
Those who were excellent runners were also measured on a group yardstick — they earned points for the team, represented the school at the big regional meets, and got food their pictures in the newspaper. But everyone who worked hard got to be a winner. Have you ever known a student who got decent grades, passed all the tests, and cruised through school without breaking a sweat or cracking a book? Very bright students need to be measured on a personal yardstick as well — one that is based on what they are capable of doing, not just what the group is expected. Schools measure all students on one yardstick — whether or not they have mastered the skills and knowledge required at their grade level. Parents can measure their children with a personal yardstick — they can reward individual progress and personal victories. So if you have a child who struggles in school, make sure you reward his progress and his accomplishments — even the small stuff.
their performance against our dreams or our fears instead of their reality. Parents need to focus on the positive and celebrate personal progress — forget about perfection! Have you ever run a cross-country race? Its a rigorous, exhausting experience, and it requires great discipline and determination to keep going. What I loved about cross-country races was that the fans cheered for every kid coming over the finish line — whether that runner was first or thirty-first. Coaches gave every runner their time, and praised those who had met or exceeded their personal best time — whatever that time happened. Cross-country athletes were measured on a personal yardstick.
How do we measure their accomplishments on a realistic scale? How do we support them as they try new things, experience some failures, overcome some obstacles, learn self-confidence, and earn a solid sense of their personal worth? Heres the deal: When we give our children challenging opportunities and support them as they try to meet those challenges, we have to make sure that their accomplishments are measured on a personal yardstick as well as a group yardstick. That means that were going to look at individual progress and personal accomplishments, not just group comparisons. Our job is to make sure that our children are rewarded for their progress as much as their product. In other words, hard work, determination, persistence, and a personal best should be celebrated as much as earning good grades, passing tests, and getting recognition from others. When were trying to do something hard or something new, most of us have an idea of the standard were trying to reach, and that standard is very often unrealistic. (Think about dieting!) And what do we do? Instead of adjusting our standard or measuring positive progress, we measure how far we are from perfection and then just give.
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Featured Article, thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 2,033,661 times. Did this article help you? Dear Friends, weve talked about self-esteem and about providing our children with the opportunities and experiences they need to develop golf their interests and their gifts. Weve talked about being a positive cheerleader for our children — with teachers, coaches, Scout leaders, and Sunday school teachers. Weve developed lists of positive traits, strong interests, and areas of excellence. We know that children develop self-esteem when they successfully meet challenges, solve problems, and learn new skills. We know that we cant give our children self-esteem with false praise and overprotection — self-esteem is something that we all have to earn. So how do we gauge our expectations of our children?