17 From as early as 200 bce, chinese packaging and branding was used to signal family, place names and product quality, and the use of government imposed product branding was used between 600 and 900. 18 Eckhart and Bengtsson have argued that during the song Dynasty (9601127 Chinese society developed a consumerist culture, where a high level of consumption was attainable for a wide variety of ordinary consumers rather than just the elite. 19 The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and sophisticated brand concepts. 20 Retailing in Medieval Europe edit The row, Chester, Cheshire, england,. 1895; a unique medieval shopping arcade In Medieval England and Europe, relatively few permanent shops were to be found; instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen. In 13th century london, mercers and haberdashers were known to exist and grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines" but fish and other perishables were sold through markets, costermongers, hucksters, peddlers or other type of itinerant vendor. 21 In the more populous cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century.
One-page business Plan Template - 14 Free word, pdf
11 Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day lebanon ) and Carthage in North Africa. 12 Grand bazaar, Istanbul (interior). Established in 1455, it is thought to be the oldest continuously operating covered market In the Graeco-roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. Local producers, who were generally poor, would sell small surpluses from their individual farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment and also buy a few luxuries for their homes. Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting and importing. The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. 13 The romans preferred to purchase goods from specific places: oysters from Londinium, shredder cinnamon from a specific mountain in Arabia, and these place-based preferences stimulated trade throughout Europe and the middle east. 14 Markets were also important centres of social life. 15 The rise of retailing and marketing in England and Europe has been extensively studied, but less is known about developments elsewhere. 16 nevertheless, recent research suggests that China exhibited a rich history of early retail systems.
8 In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling via merchants or peddlers and bartering systems were commonplace. 9 The Phoenicians, noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by the 9th century bce. The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day crete through to tangiers and onto sardinia 10 The Phoenicians not only traded in tangible goods, but were also instrumental in transporting culture. The Phoenician's extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around business 1500 bce, the Phoenicians developed a consonantal alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region.
Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. 7 In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums; the forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum. The latter was a vast expanse, apple comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front.reviews
Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. History edit see also: History of merchants ; History of the market place ; History of marketing Retailing in antiquity edit marketplace at Trajan's Forum, the earliest known example of permanent retail shopfronts Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10,000 years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. Selling and buying is thought to have emerged in Asia minor (modern Turkey) in around the 7th millennium bce. 5 Gharipour points to evidence of primitive shops and trade centres in sialk hills in Kashan (6000 bce catalk huyuk in modern-day turkey (7,5005,700 bce jericho (2600 bce) and Susa (4000 bce). 6 Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, assyria, phoenicia and Egypt. These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre.
Passages Gift Shop bc ferries - british Columbia ferry
Forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing (a type of electronic-commerce used for business-to-consumer ( B2C ) transactions) and mail order. Contents Etymology edit retail comes from the Old French word tailler, which means "to cut off, clip, pare, divide" in terms of tailoring (1365). It was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small quantities" in 1433 (from the middle French retail, "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring. 1 As in the French, the word, retail, in both Dutch and German, also refers to the sale of small quantities of items. Definition and explanation edit retail refers to the activity of reselling. A retailer is any person or organisation is a reseller who sells goods or services directly to consumers or end-users.
2 Some retailers may sell to business customers, and such sales are termed non-retail activity. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. 3 Retailing often occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels. 4 Although the idea of retail is often associated with the purchase of goods, the term may be applied to service-providers that sell to consumers. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents. Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices." While this rsm practice may encourage consumers to imagine that they have access to lower prices, while being prepared to trade-off reduced prices for cramped in-store environments, in a strict legal sense, a store that.
Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Some of the earliest retailers were itinerant peddlers. Over the centuries, retail shops were transformed from little more than "rude booths" to the sophisticated shopping malls of the modern era.
Most modern retailers typically make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store, the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service, supporting services and the store's overall market positioning. Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age, an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing. Digital technologies are also changing the way that consumers pay for goods and services. Retailing support services may also include the provision of credit, delivery services, advisory services, stylist services and a range of other supporting services. Retail shops occur in a diverse range of types and in many different contexts from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large, indoor shopping malls. Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to create a more comfortable shopping environment protecting customers from various types of weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, winds or precipitation.
Apc back-ups 650va, 120V,1 usb charging port, retail
InvoiceBerry is primarily an invoicing and tracking platform, but the company offers free business plan templates for freelancers and small businesses. Plans are for Word, Excel, Open Office and PowerPoint, and can be downloaded directly from the website. They also provide a business plan checklist to essay ensure you're including all the right information. InvoiceBerry also provides marketing plans and executive summaries you can insert into your business plan. "Retail stores" redirects here. For the comic strip by norm feuti, see. Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, thesis corporate or government clientele.
Legaltemplates' free business plan template is available for download, and once you complete it, you simply print it out. You can also download a filled-in version to use as a reference. The eight-chapter template explains what information needs to go in each section and why. With PandaDoc, you can sign up for a 14-day free trial and then paper gain access to its templates. You'll find templates for general businesses as well as specific templates for restaurants, bakeries, hotels, startups, coffee shops and salons. Once you sign up for the free trial, you can customize it to fit your business needs by adding photos, pricing tables, videos and a theme that fits your branding. Once you're done, you can send it out and track opens and views through PandaDoc.
strategies and action plans. You can answer all of the questions using keywords and short phrases. This template is used as the official business plan for the. 2018 Business Plan Competition. The pdf business plan template was adapted from Rhonda Abrams "Successful Business Plan" (The Planning Shop, 2010). Each section includes instructions explaining the type of information you should enter. In addition, the template includes a swot analysis and optional technology plan. Plan buildr offers a step-by-step guide to help you complete each section of its business plan template something that is especially helpful for those who have never written a business plan before. Their run-through takes less than 10 minutes to complete, it automatically calculates financials for you, and you can choose from 10 professional designs.
There's also a step-by-step guide for writing a business plan, and they provide a library of sample business plans to ensure you're on the right track. Mobi, or my own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara Universitys Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a business plan template consisting of 15 sections that include the business profile, licenses/permits and location. You can download the word template. Mobi provides gender helpful suggestions for how to fill in each section as well who should review. One of the cool things about the score business plan template is that once you've completed it, you can meet with a score mentor for expert advice in business planning. Score offers options for startups and established businesses, and you'll find plans for business planning, financing, marketing, etc., if you're looking to implement one of those areas into your business.
California online notary public course - exam training
Credit: Marlon Lopez_MMG1 Design/Shutterstock, business plans are used by entrepreneurs to secure funding for their business idea, or proposal by small business owners looking to tighten up their business strategy. Regardless of the purpose, having templates at the ready can be helpful. If you've never written a business plan before or just want to save time and effort, here are 10 websites where you can download a business plan template and get started. The balance's business plan template is broken down into sections that will aid you in completing the best possible business plan, whether you are creating it for funding or strategy. According to the website, each section can be copied into word, Excel or a similar word processing app by simply copying and pasting the text. The website also breaks down each section and provides instructions on how to download and fill in the template. Bplans' investor-approved business plan template has been used by universities such as Princeton and Babson to teach entrepreneurs how to start a business. The template starts out with an executive summary, and then guides you through the other elements, including the financial plan, company overview, and more.