Hindi: Bagh Eranda, jangli Eranda, safed Eranda gujarati punjab jamal Gota. Purgative and animals eat. Can grow in wasteland, arid areas. Can withstand frost and drought. Jatropha seed oil plant fat biodiesel. CE2: bio-toilets 1994: drdo sets up first biotoilet in Ladakh. Later tied up with Indian railways. 2012: Rural development ministry tied up with drdo to install bio-toilets under Total sanitation mission /Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.
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Railways need 2 billion litres of diesel memories every year. We can manufacture 500 tonnes of biodiesel from Jatropha and Karanjia alone. These plants are non-edible and can be grow on wind wasteland. Offers new energy-related markets to farmers. 2002: 5 blended biodiesel used on a shatabdi engine. 2003: railways signed an mou with Indian Oil Corporation ahd gave 500 land for Jatropha cultivation. Ioc in return promised to supply biodisel for 15 years. 2014: Modis railway budget permitted 5 blending of biodiesel with (real) diesel. Jatropha plant: Basics Originally from south America and Africa family euphorbiaceae. Greek: Jatros doctor, jatropha nutrition.
CE1: 5 biodiesel in railways What is biodiesel? Biodiesel is a fuel manufactured from animal or vegetable fats It has physical properties very similar to the diesel obtained from crude oil reaction (Animal or plant) fat Alcohol (Methanol or Ethanol) catalyst high temp high pressure glycerin biodiesel. Chemically, biodiesel is Methyl Ester (if methanol used) or ethyl Ester (if Ethanol used) Glycerin is separated and write used in soap-cosmetic industry. If Glycerin is not removed from biodiesel, then itll block the fuel filters. Simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, rich in oxygen. Free of sulfur and aromatics. Thus reduces ghg emission, air pollution and public health risk. Biodiesel can be blended at any level with (real) diesel. Thus biodiesel will reduce our dependence on imported fossil fuel less current account deficit.
To advise the government on prices for both passenger trains and good essay trains. Depending on input cost and volatile market conditions. Will improve fare : freight ratio will reduce the cross subsidization between freight and passenger train operations. But, under the railway act, only the railway board can decide on the prices of rail services. So, rta has been established through an executive order. However, modis rail budget is silent on this issue. Four topics: biodiesel, biotoilets, Green curtain, Clean energy company.
June 2014: (Modi) government raised passenger ticket price by 14, and freight charges.5. Because of the same fuel-linked pricing policy. This will improve railways income by 8000 crore. But even this much money insufficient to finish past projects. (we need 50,000 crores every year for next ten years.) C5: rail Tariff Authority railway makes 23 paisa loss per passenger, per kilometre. Therefore, need to raise prices. 2014: interim budget announced setting up the rail Tariff Authority (RTA).
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In 2001, it was 10 paise.) to compensate this loss, railway keeps freight (goods transport) prices higher. This is called Cross subsidization. Railways Operating Ratio. Meaning they spend 94 paise out of every rupee earned. Only 6 paisa left in surplus. ( This is rail ministers explanation in his budget speech 2014 ) C4: fuel requirements Linked Tariff policy fuel (diesel and electricity) 17 of the railways total operation cost. So, if railways wants to improve its operating ratio, it must keep changing fares depending on fuel cost.
Therefore, (upa-ii) rail budget 2013 announced fuel adjustment component (FAC) weightage high Speed diesel (HSD).3 Electricity.5. Fac is Dynamic in nature- fares can be reduced if fuel becomes cheaper. To be revised every 6 months. Last time fares revised in October 2013. So next revision should have been done in April/may 2014. But Congress government didnt do it (for vote bank / model code of conduct).
Started in 69 Red ribbon to spread aids awareness Shatabdi connects Metro cities with other cities. Called Shatabdi because started in 88 Nehrus centenary. C1: Pir Panjal Tunnel, qazigund Banihal qazigund Banihal section Pir Panjal ircon ltd built it Hindustan Construction company 18km long rail section.2 kms tunnel. Longest rail tunnel in India, 2nd longest in Asia. 1st longest is in China.
Joins qazigund (Kashmir) with Banihal (Jammu) Pir Panjal: is name of the tunnel on that section. (Technical name t-80 tunnel) next project: connecting Udhampur Banihal (2017) built with New Austrian tunneling method. First time in India passes 450m below the existing Jawahar road tunnel. Before moving to rail Tarrif authority, we need to learn two definitions: C2: What is Cross subsidization in railways? To keep rail travel cheap for the poor people, railways keeps the passenger tickets lower than its input cost. (23 paise per passenger per kilometer in 2013.
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But seat space narrow, no food/bedding given. Jansadharan Theyve no reservation seats. Theyve only general coaches. Theyre run to handle rush season. Modi railbudget promised to run more such trains on popular routes. Memu trains mainline Electric Multiple Unit suburban trains. Has multiple motors for each car. E., the same car that carries remote passengers also has electrical engine Premium Trains/jai hind express Trains for the high end passengers Dynamic fare system based on demand. Principle similar to air tickets Regular fare will not be applicable rajdhani connects Delhi with state capitals.
But Parliament rules of procedure of Parliament permit. Although rail budgets receipt and expenditure are also shown in General budget. Observe following: General Budget: revenue part receipt (incoming) Expenditure (outgoing) tax non tax dividend from railways counted here. Grants given to railways counted here general Budget Capital part: receipt (incoming money) Expenditure (outgoing) Money received from disinvestment counted here. If rail ministry sold its shares from one of its psus. Loans given to railways Parliamentary convention committee reviews the railways contribution to general budget. Railway fair gauges (British Legacy) gauge size broad 1,676 mm (5 ft3) British used it to send raw material from Indian hinterland to port cities Meter 1,000 mm (3ft3) Narrow 762 mm; 610mm (lift gauge) Ranking track length in India : broad meter narrow Project uni-gauge. Railways: Train types List not exhaustive demu trains same as above but with diesel engine diesel multiple unit Duranto duranto means, restless in Bengali long distance non stop from source to destination as fast as Rajdhani and Shatabdi Express Trains speed 160 kmph Garib-rath.
Thane (34kms) under governor General Dalhousie 1854 Calcutta to raniganj 1856 Madras to Arkonam 1924-25 rail budget separated from general budget (Acworth). Acworth gave report in 1921. But they separated in 1924. 2010 Kolkata metro declared the 17th rail zone 2013 fuel linked tariff policy 2014 Mumbai: new Monorail, new metro-rail. Naharalagun: new railway line to connect Itanagar (Arunanchal Pradesh) with rest of India railway budget vs General Budget 1924-25: The British started separate rail budget on Acworth Committee recommendations Indian constitution does not provide for separate railway budget or budget in parts.
CE1: 5 biodiesel plan in railways, what is biodiesel? Whatre the benefits of biodiesel? Jatropha plant: Basics, cE2: bio-toilets. CE3: Green curtain (interim budget cE4: Clean energy company, act 4 rail Budget 2014. Passenger amnesties, railway food, ticket booking, rail Hygiene, passenger safety, ultra sonic rail breakage, rail tourism, udhampur Katra. Metros, diamond quadrilateral, bullet train, rail training, agriculture, parcel biz, e-governance /ict initiatives. Act 5 Economic Survey fodder, f1: Challenges of Indian railways, f2: fdi in Indian railways.
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Prologue, act 1 railways: gk static Theory. Railway budget vs General Budget, railway gauges (British Legacy railways: Train types. Act 2 railways: Current / Contemporary topics. C1: Pir Panjal Tunnel, qazigund Banihal. C2: What is Cross subsidization in railways? C3: What is Operating friend Ratio of railways? C4: fuel Linked Tariff policy, c5: rail Tariff Authority, act 3 railways: Clean energy- sanitation measures.