It is recommended that you graph data whenever possible - it is much easier to interpret data when they are presented in a graph form than when they are in tabular form. Again, use past tense. Please append a copy of your raw data to the report and provide a sample calculation. You may photocopy the original copy of shared group data. When discussing statistical tests, always indicate the type of test used (e.g., t-test, chi-square) and report the probability (p) value. . For example, "A chi-square test (p0.02) indicated that we must reject the null hypothesis." Or, "Spider distribution is markedly affected by the presence of hedge apples (chi square;.02).". Discussion : This section should: (1) explain for the results; (2) interpret of the results; (3)indicate if the results were expected and why or why not? (4) discuss any previous studies or information related to the experiment and compare the results of the two experiments; and (5) suggest the significance of the results and experiment. .
Writing, research Papers - rice University
Methods : This is a problem written description of the experimental procedures. Labeled diagrams of complicated apparatus may supplement the written description. This section should be explicit enough so that another investigator could repeat your experiment. Recall that one of the criteria of science is that it is repeatable; that is, others would get the same results if they followed your methods. Be as specific as possible indicating how much, how long, how many types, where samples were collected and when, types of equipment used, etc. You should also indicate any type of statistical analysis that was done. . This section should be written in past tense. If the procedures you used are published elsewhere, simply cite that reference; however, you must still give a brief summary of what you did. . be sure to include the source, identity and method of preparation of your plant materials. Results : This section is a written description of the results of your experiment. It also includes all the information gathered during the course of the experiment, including graphs, tables and other figures.
Title : - keep the title of your paper as brief as possible. Capitalize the first letter of each major word. The title should shredder be descriptive and give the reader an immediate indication of the subject of your paper. . Under the title, center your name, campus, phone number. Introduction : This section discusses your reasons (. E., question) for conducting the experiment, the purpose of your experiment, and pertinent background information concerning your experimental topic. Your hypothesis should be included in some form. . This section should include a review of pertinent literature related to your project. . This section should be approximately one typed page.
Reports can become writing samples for general graduate or professional schools. . Reports can become proposals for grant-funded research at goucher or outside. . Reports can be used to train faculty, tutors, or writers. . Reports can change the world, a little bit or a lot-it's your choice). Plants human Affairs, writing a lab Report in biol106. Overview : The purpose of a lab report is to document the results of an experiment. . Most lab reports follow a standardized proposal format that, among other things, makes it easier for the reader to quickly locate information of interest. The sections of a laboratory report that we will use are:. Title author identification,.
Charts and graphs are used to help us see trends, etc. . Illustrations can help us visualize specific situations, apparatus, and attributes of your evidence which are crucial to your conclusions. . If you use a survey or interview form to gather evidence, include the form. . If you are collecting suggestions or responses from a specific population, consider excerpting the most important ones in an "appendix" at the end of the report (another form of "raw data. Other things the report can become or do: Though English 221 is an academic course at goucher College, its interests extend into a wide range of other domains, and your report may lead you deeper into one or more of them. . Reports can generate proposals to change the way things are done, to do something which has not yet been done, or to do away with something that currently is being done. . Reports can become web sites or add to existing web sites if their results can be usefully accessed in that form. . Reports can become proposals for senior honors theses or independent studies in English or other disciplines. .
Tense, summary grammar quizzes
Make time for a final "editorial conference" in which you read through the final draft for logical and stylistic consistency, but also consider putting all the sections through a conversationally improved second draft in which you let insights from each section inform the others. After a group brainstorming session which generates a consensus about what your evidence means, divide the writing stages into a first draft composition which is assigned to one or two members, and a revision draft which the other members produce. . A final draft editorial conference also is recommended for this method, as well. always budget time for a stylistic and grammatical revision: This is different from making sure the parts are arranged logically, the pronoun-choice is consistent (I, we, or 3rd person and the tense is consistent (present. even the very best writers will make more mistakes in spelling, punctuation, syntax and word choice when they resume are working with very difficult ideas, large amounts of evidence, complicated production strategies, or tight deadlines. .
Just getting something done should be your first, not your last objective. . When you plan how you will complete the writing, set aside several days for each member of the group to re-read the report alone, and then meet to fix errors and to improve the paper's style. Decide how you want the product to be evaluated: Once you've chosen your composition method, think through whether you can consider the results a completely homogeneous product of everyone in the group. . If you chose a production process which divided responsibility for separate parts, perhaps they should be evaluated separately, assigning authors to each. . you also can assign separate responsibility for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Decide what ancillary materials to include: Research sometimes generates a number of important supporting documents which may be essential to your readers' understanding of your findings, or which may help following groups make more rapid progress in following the path you have pioneered. . In the sciences, data tables routinely are provided to allow colleagues to check conclusions against the raw evidence. .
Back to ' clarity and Style ' writer's Web Writing Center make an Appointment library copyright Info). Tips for Getting Started in Collaborative research and Presenting Results. Tips for Research Project Report Writing. Follow the format of the type of research you are doing: Those of you who are actually gathering original data from interviews, observations, samples of prose, or surveys, at least should consider reporting your project's results in some form of a scientific article format, though. However, you should know that the scientific format (cbe style) will simplify some important parts of a complex report by allowing you to park your information in some pre-designed sections of the paper without having to write transition between them. . This advantage is intended to speed the communication between scientists and their colleagues, and it also guarantees that you'll attend to all the necessary details of representing your project's data gathering and analysis.
Click here for an introduction to "Types of Natural Sciences Writing and click here for a "cookbook" approach to "How to Write a scientific Article.". Any of the groups can decide to adapt the scientific report's "chapter"-style presentation to make writing collaboratively more efficient and coherent. . we can negotiate about how much transitional logic you need to provide. . Just remember that transitions between big units of writing are where new ideas and insights come from! Decide how to distribute the burden of writing: Depending on the kind of project you are doing, you may decide that the writing, itself, may need to be "collaborative" in that you may have to write part or all of it together. . This can be very successful, or very stressful, depending on how maturely and sensitively you conduct those writing events, and how carefully you plan what you are attempting. . Other ways to produce the report may involve the following organizational decisions: divide the report into sections and distribute them among the group based on interest, expertise, time available and writing ability.
Barn Burning Study guide - course hero
Many of them crop up in academic writing, too. We have added a few others to this (admittedly incomplete) list. Occasionally they have an ironic effect, or a reader might like them (this writer loves "sands of time but usually faculty members mark them as inappropriate: all walks of life give the devil his due never a dull moment behind the eight ball hook, line. Academic prose doesn't have to be boring. Some of the phrases in the nietzsche example could be used: In Friedrich nietzsche's On plan the genealogy of Morals, we see an epic battle being waged between systems of morality. Nietzsche, angered by those who follow what he labels a "Slave morality claims that some religions suppress human instinct. "Epic battle" is a colorful phrase that one doesn't hear every day. Good, active verbs help too-"battle.waged" has much more impact than would "there is a struggle that is enacted between." see the Writer's Web materials about Adding Action to Writing for more advice.
A list of worn-out or vague phrases found in student work, and alternates (or at least advice phrase, alternative everyday life can be cut completely or made specific. Consider: everyday life is very different for a college student and, say, a stock broker or homeless person! In today's society today, currently pros and cons advantages and disadvantages, costs and benefits people which ones? Society who is "society"? Too many alternates exist to list. Instead, be specific about which group of people is being considered this day age today, presently,. Michael Spear, in our Department of journalism, grey warns his students to avoid these journalistic phrases because they are so often overused.
is probably a cliche or on its way there. Instead of using stock phrases and images, be creative-but beware! Using the thesaurus has many dangers, such as misusing a synonym that doesn't quite fit the meaning you want. Also, inventing your own colorful descriptions can lead you as far astray as any worn-out phrase. Finally, avoid "padding" your work with cliches. This is an effective way to increase the length of a paper, but not to increase your grades. Most professors know cliches when they see them.
In the long run, these guardians of the tried-and-true morality have suppressed human instinct, nietzsche trumpets to the reader. How did you do? If you identified similes such as "like the dead metaphors such as "keepers of the flame and modifiers such as "bright and early" then you have a good eye for worn-out language. Sadly, many great phrases, such as "mother of all battles are coined but quickly become overused. How many times did you get sick of hearing people say "Not!" business a decade ago? How do you identify and avoid cliches? When writing, question any comparison or image you are about to use.
How to Write
Avoiding Cliches in Writing ( printable version here can you identify the trite, overused, and plain tired expressions in these 2 paragraphs? John doe had been sleeping like the dead when his alarm clock screamed like a banshee at him. It was 1:36. M., and John had planned to be up bright and early that morning. His eyelids were as heavy as lead as he wracked his brain for excuses. It had been the mother of all lost weekends. Now he had to pay the piper-he'd missed Core again, and the hand of doom was heavy upon his grade business in the class. In Friedrich nietzsche's, on the genealogy of Morals, we see an epic battle being waged between systems of morality. Arrayed against him, like keepers of the flame, we have nietzsche's mortal enemies, the guardians of Slave morality.