They filled canyons that served as precursors for the deschutes and Crooked rivers — since eroded — and extended tens of miles from the volcano. Lava from the last of these eruptions, about 78,000 years ago, covered the bend area, surrounded the pilot Butte cinder cone, and filled the deschutes river bed. In addition to its production of large lava flows, newberry volcano has also produced a number of Plinian eruptions similar to the eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii and Peléan eruptions like the 1902 explosion of mount Pelée. These include a number of caldera-forming eruptions, producing ash flow deposits including the tepee draw tuff and Black lapilli tuff, and rising 20 miles (32 km) or more into the stratosphere. The last of these eruptions covered tens of thousands of square miles with ash, extending to the san Francisco bay area in California, nearly 500 miles (800 km) to the southwest. Here, it reaches a thickness of 1 centimetre (10 mm). Additionally, newberry has produced multiple, voluminous explosive eruptions, with certain studies estimating up to 60 eruptive events of rhyolite and dacite tephra that reach Idaho, utah, and northern California. These include the eruption that produced the paulina Creek tephra between 55,000 and 50,000 years ago and the eruption from 20,000 years ago responsible for the wono tephra, which extends into western nevada and east-central California.
Funding to support Scholarly work/Participation
With a lopsided shape where the northeastern rim is 82 feet (25 m) taller than the southwestern counterpart, this cinder cone sits just 10 miles (16 km) industry south of Bend. The nearby badlands shield volcano, which formed out of a rootless vent to form a large basaltic lava flow at Newberry, has a diameter of 8 miles (13 km). It has pāhoehoe lava throughout its surface, with tumuli (mounds of earth and stones) and a pit crater. Dacite and rhyodacite domes can be world found on the middle and upper flanks, 57 and Newberry also features twenty rhyolitic lava domes and lava flows among its western, eastern, and southern flanks. These include east Butte and China hat at the eastern base of the volcano, which date to 850,000 and 780,000 years ago, and therefore predate newberry. The Mckay butte, found on the volcano's western side, formed 580,000 years ago. Other Holocene eruptions have produced rhyolite lava that remained closed to the summit, including paulina peak, which has a width of 1 mile (1.6 km) and reaches 3 miles (4.8 km) from the wall of the caldera. Hot springs can be found at paulina and East lakes, along with one fumarole gas vent at Lost lake, located near the big Obsidian lava flow. These discharge gases like water vapor and carbon dioxide, giving off a rotten smell, though the composition has few noxious components. Eruptive history edit map showing lava flows from the newberry volcano during the late Pleistocene, newberry volcano produced a number of voluminous lava flows, made of basalt, which originated from several vents on its northern flank and reached the modern areas of Bend and Redmond.
These include cinder cones, lava domes, and various other lava edifices, with at least 25 vents on the volcano's flanks and summits becoming active within the past 10,000 years. Most of the cinder cones on the volcano's edifice vary from 200 to 400 feet (61 to 122 m) in elevation, though a couple reach heights above 500 feet (150 m) with diameters greater than.5 miles (0.80 km). Most of these exhibit saucerlike summit depression landforms, with notable exceptions at lava top and North Kawak buttes, which have craters that are 200 to 300 feet (61 to 91 m) in depth. Basaltic and basaltic andesite lava flows have penetrated the bases of many of these cinder cones, forming a matrix of connected flows, and a veneer of pāhoehoe and aā lavas can be found on Newberry volcano's northern and southern sides. The northern flank holds three distinct lava tube systems that formed out of pāhoehoe lava: the horse lava tube system, arnold lava tube system, and the lava top Butte basalt. About 7,000 years ago, at Newberry 's Northwest Rift Zone, lava fountains erupted from a fissure.5 miles (2.4 km) in length, yielding basaltic and andesitic lava flows. Strombolian eruptions (which eject incandescent cinder, lapilli, and lava bombs) produced tephra that formed lava butte, a cinder cone near Newberry with a height of 500 feet (150 m a base diameter of 2,300 feet (700 m and a crater depth of 160 feet (50 m).
The last crater formed after an explosive eruption about 80,000 years ago, which ejected up.5 cubic miles (10 km3) of pyroclastic materials. Throughout this progression, the assignment volcano shifted from rhyodacitic pumice to basaltic ash flows, the latter producing the Black lapilli tuff that covers the western side of the volcano. Since the last caldera-forming eruption 80,000 years ago, the volcano has undergone silicic eruptions at the caldera and produced basaltic and basaltic andesite lava flows that extended down its outer flanks. The tephra and ash from the Black lapilli tuff by the caldera formed agglutinates around its rim. Newberry volcano is cut by several fault scarps, small step offsets on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other. 49 At the center of the isthmus that separates Newberry volcano's two crater lakes is the central volcanic cone, named Central Pumice cone, which has an elevation of 700 feet (210 m). With a broad, flat top, it formed during an explosive eruption 50 about 7,000 years ago, and sits in the center of the caldera. Subfeatures edit lava butte, a cinder cone produced by eruptions at Newberry volcano with more than 400 vents, newberry night has more individual subfeatures than any other volcano in the contiguous United States.
1 As a result of its caldera-forming eruption, newberry has a horizontal profile, which is typical of a shield volcano. However, it is also considered a composite volcano, made up of a matrix of lava flows and pyroclastic deposits. Unlike more typical composite volcanoes in the cascades, it formed from several eruption types including more traditional explosive eruptions and more fluid effusive events; thus it is usually classified as a "shield-shaped composite volcano or shield-shaped stratovolcano. The volcano has a caldera at its summit, which has a diameter of 4 by 5 miles (6.4.0 km) and features two crater lakes: paulina lake and East lake. This caldera, known as the newberry Crater, is forested, with small parts of its surface covered with lava flows and pumice deposits. Before the caldera's creation, the mountain's summit was 500 to 1,000 feet (150 to 300 m) greater in height than its current elevation. 45 The caldera has been formed and reformed several times throughout the volcano's history, burying the caldera floor to a depth of 1,640 feet (500 m) and creating concentric calderas, each smaller than its predecessor. The first caldera, the volcano's largest which formed approximately 300,000 years ago, was produced by the eruption.5 cubic miles (10 km3) of pyroclastic ejecta, which formed the tepee draw tuff and ash deposits that cover the volcano's eastern flank.
Tohu bohu: book, report : Pygmalion
It lies at the intersection of the Brothers fault Zone with the northnorthwest-trending Sisters and northeast-trending Walker Rim fault zones. The oldest rocks in this region include silicic (rich in silica ) lava domes from the late miocene or early Pliocene, which lie near the province's eastern and southern borders, respectively. Volcanism in this area suggests a progression of silicic eruptions, known as the newberry Trend 28, that moves in a northwest-trending direction from the harney basin to newberry volcano and the rest of the cascade range. Newberry volcano's origins are somewhat controversial; some scientists think it originated from an independent hotspot, but overwhelming evidence suggests that it is part of the cascades Arc, new and produced by the subduction of the oceanic juan de fuca and Gorda tectonic plates under the continental. However, newberry volcano been transformed by tectonic processes, possibly related to subductive mechanisms that enhance melting of the juan de fuca tectonic plate. The high lava plains Trend, or the newberry Trend, moves at an oblique angle to the underlying North American tectonic plate, and subduction counterflow, gravitational flow along the lithosphere's base, faulting, and extension of the basin and Range Province have all been proposed as possible.
At Newberry, the subducting tectonic plate has a depth that is 12 miles (20 km) shallower than elsewhere in the major crest of the cascades, accounting for its unique magmas. Newberry volcano is likely fed by a magma chamber.9.1 miles (3 to 5 km) under the large, cauldron-like caldera at its summit. 39 An aerial view of Newberry caldera from the northeast, with East lake in the foreground Newberry volcano first formed about 600,000 years ago, 41 and has since been built up by several thousand eruptions. About 500,000 years ago, mount Newberry attained an elevation of 14,000 feet (4,300 m). 42 Multiple eruptions created the caldera, but the main caldera-forming event occurred around 75,000 years ago from a major explosive eruption. 43 It formed the crater lakes and paulina peak, which is the highest point on the volcano, 42 at 7,989 feet (2,435 m).
Paulina lake has an area of 1,530 acres (6.2 km2) and reaches a maximum depth of 250 feet (76 m and it is separated from East lake by a narrow isthmus (a piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they. East lake has a smaller area of 1,050 acres (4.2 km2) with a maximum depth of 180 feet (55 m). The lakes have historically flooded channels surrounding the volcano. A large flood between 4,000 and 2,300 years ago released up to 12,000 acre feet in volume from paulina lake, filling the valley floor above the paulina Prairie. It was possibly caused by the failure of a rock ledge 5 feet (1.5 m) in height, rather than eruptive activity.
Another flood took place in 1909 on the deschutes river downstream from where it meets the little deschutes river tributary stream. Ecology edit Flora within the newberry volcano area includes forests of junipers, whitebark pine, ponderosa pine (including Oregon's largest ponderosa pine tree lodgepole pine, jack pine, and white fir, in addition to other plants like indian paintbrush, purple penstemon, bitterbrush, manzanita, and snowbrush. Infestations by mountain pine beetles have killed many lodgepole pines in the area. Animals near Newberry volcano consist of burrowing owls, kangaroo rats, lizards, bats, rattlesnakes, eagles, porcupines, otters, bobcats, mule deer, roosevelt elk, and ducks. Geology edit Progression of ages of rhyolitic (silicic) lavas and calderas from McDermitt Caldera to newberry and Yellowstone calderas (red circles: mc, nc, yc). Numbers are ages in millions of years. Kbml klamath—Blue mountains Lineament, hlp high lava plains, edz eugene—denio zone, bfz brothers fault Zone, smf steens mountain fault, vf vale fault, nnr north nevada rift. White arrow shows direction of North American plate, edge of the craton is approximately along the Oregon—Idaho border, triangles are cascades volcanoes. Overlapping with the northwestern corner of the basin and Range Province, also known as the high lava plains, newberry volcano lies within a cenozoic highland marked by normal faults known as the Brothers fault Zone.
How to make a presentation (with Pictures) - wikihow
The volcano is extremely dry because it lies in the rain shadow of the cascade range. Summer temperatures range from 73 to 82 F (23 to 28 C) on average, dipping to averages of 20 to 40 F (7 to 4 C) during the winter season. Spring has average temperatures of 60 F (16 C while fall temperatures average 67 F (19 C). Each year, total precipitation consisting of winter snow and summer rain varies from.8.5 inches (25 to 75 cm) in the highest parts of the region, and surface runoff rarely occurs even during heavy rain showers. Only one stream appears throughout its entire surface, and it remains unclear whether the volcano has ever been able to support glaciers on its slopes, since the mountain lacks cirques (amphitheatre-like valleys formed by glacial erosion) or evidence of contact between lava and ice. However, rocks have been found displaced far from their native areas, moraine sediment has been deposited on the eastern and northeastern slopes of the volcano, and the mountain's various cone features have "boat" shapes that hint at glacial alteration. The past long presence of glaciers on the volcano remains somewhat debated, but there is more evidence that the volcano once held large volumes of water. The volcano has two crater lakes, paulina lake and East lake, which are filled by precipitation and percolation of ground water.
Still considered an active volcano, it could erupt and produce lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars (volcanically induced mudslides, landslides, and debris flows ashfall, earthquakes, avalanches, and floods. To monitor this threat, the volcano and its surroundings are closely monitored with sensors by the United States geological Survey. Contents geography edit newberry volcano's location in Oregon relative to other major volcanoes The center of Newberry volcano lies 20 miles (32 km) to the south of the city of Bend, at the intersection of Deschutes, klamath, and lake counties in the. State of Oregon, 3 and is one of the most accessible volcanoes in the state. The largest volcano in the cascade volcanic Arc, with roughly the same area as the state of Rhode Island 3 at 1,200 square miles (3,100 km2) when its lava flows are taken into account, 6 it lies 35 miles (56 km) east of the major crest. From its northernmost to southernmost point, the volcano is 75 miles (121 km) in length, with a width biography of 27 miles (43 km and a total volume of approximately 120 cubic miles (500 km3). Because of its enormous size and topographic prominence, it is often confused for an entire mountain range. Newberry is heavily influenced by its surrounding environment.
flows, and lava domes ; it has more than 400 vents, the most of any volcano in the contiguous United States. Glaciers may have once been present at the volcano, though this remains unclear, and the volcano is very dry with low precipitation levels and little surface runoff. Though Newberry volcano's origins remain somewhat unclear, as some scientists think it originated from an independent hotspot, most evidence points to it resulting from the subduction of the oceanic juan de fuca and Gorda tectonic plates under the continental North American tectonic plate. Eruptive activity began about 600,000 years ago, and has continued into the holocene, its last eruption taking place 1,300 years ago. Unlike other volcanoes with shield shapes, which often erupt basaltic lavas, the newberry volcano also has erupted andesitic and rhyolitic lavas. A popular destination for hiking, fishing, boating, and other recreational activities, the volcano lies within 19 miles (31 km) of 16,400 people and within 62 miles (100 km) of nearly 200,000 people, and continues to pose a threat.
Bend, Oregon, within the, newberry, national Volcanic Monument. The largest volcano in the. Cascade volcanic Arc, it has roughly the same area as the state. Rhode Island at 1,200 square miles (3,100 km2) when its lava flows are taken into account. From its northernmost to southernmost point, the volcano is 75 miles (121 km) in length, with a width of 27 miles (43 km) and a total volume of approximately 120 cubic miles (500 km3). It was named for the geologist and surgeon. John Strong, with newberry, who explored central Oregon for the. Pacific railroad, surveys in 1855, and the surrounding area has been inhabited. Native american populations for more than 10,000 years.
Senator Rand paul on Ferguson: we must Demilitarize the
"Hospitality is one of the gifts given by god and he granted it to both of you! . Ron and I feel very blessed to have had the opportunity to stay at your campground and meet both of you. . Thank you for your concern and for allowing me to use your bug spray and for taking the time and thought to bring out those dryer sheets. . Also thank you for taking the time to talk and ask how our days had gone as well as taking our plans into consideration before renting out the site we were occupying. . may god Bless you and your family and may your business prosper." — ron and Marcie, july 3rd, 2015 "Just checked in for a quick night stay on our adventure around the. . Very nice campground, great shade, level sites, dry firewood. . What more does one need."—Warren r, 2016. Newberry, volcano (also known as, newberry, caldera ) is a large active shield-shaped stratovolcano located 35 miles paper (56 km) east of the major crest of the. Cascade range and about 20 miles (32 km) south.