How did this happen? The fact is that, even though the. Iliad stands at the beginning of one tradition— the written tradition—it also comes at the end of an entirely different tradition. One way of thinking about Homer's. Iliad is as a survivor of a form of purely oral poetry passed down from generation to generation without ever being written down. Except, of course, nobody knows anything about who homer was —though, of course, there are plenty of theories. But no matter what your theory about the author is, one fact that everyone agrees on is the true genius and artistry of the homeric poems. And everyone agrees that the whacked-out madness that is the.
Olympus that they just start making trouble. And yes, for yes—it's also one of the most famous epic poems ever written, by one of the most epic poets who ever lived. So what's going on in this poem? Paris steals another man's wife, and the Greeks and Trojans go to war. We meet up with everyone when the war has been raging for ten whole years, and everyone is more than a little punch-drunk and acting badly. And we mean everyone—famous heroes like achilles are insane with blood-lust. Agamemnon is throwing his weight around. Hector is ignoring omens (a big no-no in mythology). And the gods are drugging each other, seducing each other, moping about lackluster offerings from the mortals, and basically presiding over this bloody battle as if it were a game of foosball. First making its appearance in scroll-format around the 8th century. Iliad is the earliest known work of European literature.
When you're fighting a dude in a battle and he gets swept away by a vengeful god so you don't get to murder him personally. Oh—that's never happened to you? Okay: how about this: when you're killing so many people in a river that the river itself gets angry with you and starts chasing you? You can't relate to that either? Well, what about when the goddess of love is trying resume to trick you by disguising herself as an old woman but is too vain to disguise her perfect, youthful bosom and you think "What kind of idiot do you think i am, aphrodite? these are all occurrences in the. Iliad, which has a completely undeserved reputation as being stuffy. It's old, yes, but the content of the. Iliad is 50 carnage and 50 Greek gods being so bored of their fancy-shmancy existence.
Although i keep introducing new errors and stubbornly retain some of the online old ones, i am grateful for the many improvements that have been proposed and especially for the many that I have been able to first incorporate. Thanks to you all. Insofar as i know, all pictures accompanying this material are in the public domain. Except for the photo of the roman statue on this page, all others are redrawn from motifs on Classical Greek vases. Go to Iliad Maps. Go to Greek chronology. There have been visits to this page since 160901. 2018 Shmoop University, inc. In a nutshell, you know what blows?
It is believed that Greek in Homer's period made use of pitch variations rather than stress accents. Although the pitch distinctions are preserved in the three accent marks that Classicists meticulously preserve today, the actual pitches are less clear, and in any case few people for the last two thousand years have been able to produce such a pronunciation. One of the few was the late Professor Stephen. Daitz of the city University of New York. His pronunciation of the first 52 lines of the Iliad is available. It works on a pc, but for a tablet or telephone, you will probably need to track it down on. Acknowledgements over the years this essay has been read and improved by too many students and colleagues for me to enumerate them here.
The Iliad Summary - shmoop
They do not focus on character development, dramatic descriptions, or literary manipulations of the material (all of which are fascinating). Instead they direct attention to matters in which the Iliad can help us understand the society of Homer or of the mycenaeans, or in which Homer or the mycenaeans can help us understand other peoples (including ourselves). A problem with these questions is that they are hard. After I composed them, i found that often I could not answer them, especially if I let a little time slip by between reading a chapter and approaching its questions. The reason is that the questions focus on some quite small details because these are where many of the clues lie about what Mycenaean life was like or about how reliable an account Homer is giving. Remember that for purposes of this site, you are not reading the Iliad as a work of literature, and these notes do not treat it from a literary perspective.
If you are not reading the Iliad, but are using these notes only for the background information and the synopsis, you will probably not be able to make much use of Part. (Most of them cannot be answered from the story-line summary provided in part.) writer Related Links Chronology. It is useful to have some sense of the order of events in the Greek world. A relatively simple one is available on this web site. ( Link ) sound.
Modern readers want to know how much of the story is true. Did the Trojan War happen? How accurate was Homers account? How can we know? What has been found at the archaeological site of Troy? A critical fact is that, at about the same time Troy fell to the Greeks (if that is what happened pretty much every other large human settlement in the region also was destroyed and/or abandoned, so the Trojan War for the historian makes sense only.
Some of these questions are discussed in Part. Part 5 (an appendix) is a list of the principal players in the Iliad. There are lots of them, so it makes life easier to have a reference list. If you use this handbook while you read the Iliad, i recommend that you read the introduction to the list and look through it before you start reading, and then use it afterward if you get confused about who is who. If you are content with a quick overview of the book, you probably don't need. If you are preparing for an exam, you may want to use a flash-card version of it ( link ). Part 6 is a list of questions and answers about the Iliad. How these questions came to be and what they seek to accomplish are laid out in the introduction to part. They were originally intended to be read immediately after reading the corresponding chapter.
The Iliad - homer - ancient Greece - classical Literature
It is also an important historical source for our understanding of the age of Homer (about 800 BC) and of the events he seems to proposal describe (about 1200 BC). This introduction is designed to help you interpret Homers Iliad as a cultural and historical document, but generally ignores its literary significance, although that is the focus of most college courses in which it is introduced. The presentation here consists of four main parts: Parts 1-3 deal with the story itself. Homer assumes that his audience will already be familiar with many of the characters in his story, and with the events that preceded and followed. The historical and mythological events that precede the story are laid out in Part. Part 2 is a synopsis of the book. Part 3 discusses what happened at Troy after the close of the Iliad, including the story of the famous Trojan Horse. Part 4 is more modern.
The pictures used to illustrate these files are all, to the best of my knowledge, in the public domain or available for educational use. Learnèd commentators view in Homer more than Homer knew.—Swift. Introduction, the, iliad is an epic historical account written in verse and attributed to an author we today call Homer. Some specialists consider Homer to have been a woman or a committee or a random collection of legends, but mainstream tradition regards him as a man, probably illiterate and possibly blind, living along the western coast of what is today turkey. The, iliad is considered to be one of the earliest masterworks of world literature, and it was enormously influential in Greek and Roman thought and in all the later societies influenced by the Classical Mediterranean world. Many college courses incorporate the, iliad for these reasons. Marble editing bust of Homer, roman, ad 2, the haircut is funny-looking, even for a roman statue, but (1) some people like funny-looking hair, and (2) there is no reason to believe homer actually looked anything like this.
The Archaeology of Troy. Being Luwian, conclusion: Why we need Homer, appendix: Principal Players in Homers Iliad (Also a lot of minor ones.). Appendix: Crotchety queries About the Iliad (Sociologically oriented discussion questions with which to torment your students if you are a teacher or your roommate if you are a student. Fortunately, answers are proposed.). The story of the Trojan War has been a major theme in world art, inspiring thousands of works from antiquity to the present. You are encouraged to do web searches on the proper names and examine some of these.
The epic has strong religious and supernatural influence. Both warring parties are extremely religious and the Greek and Trojan heroes draw strength from favored gods, giving them divine power. Regularly making sacrifices to gods, while the gods constantly intervene in the war on behalf of their believers, almost treating the humans as puppets for their own causes. The Illiad covers only the final and tenth year of the Trojan war. The intial war years, the background of the war and the end of the war are given a miss. Jordan: a beginners guide to the Iliad (Introduction). Before the Iliad. After the Iliad.
Poem Summary - cliffsNotes
The poems of Illiad depict the seige of the city of Ilion or Troy during the Trojan War. The word Illiad itself means summary "something concerned with Ilion". Illion was the city based in the state of Troy. When Illiad was created, is arguable. Some scholars are adamant that it was written around the 8th - 9th century, while some debate it must have been written during the 6th - 7th century. The whole Illiad is devoted to war of Troy, giving a detailed poetic description of the war. The characters of the fighters, their battle cries and all the intricate details of the war are mentioned.