Collapsible metal supports for inside defenses. Fastening of alarm wire to covered entrance of a dugout. Fastening of a bell. Fastening of alarm wire from observer to dugout. Signal system on the bottom of a trench near fire position or dugout. Pole in the middle of the line. Covered fire positions pages 51-52 (not included) show protection characteristics of different types of construction materials.
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Entrenchment for biography 75-mm gun. Entrenchment for 150-mm gun. Entrenchment for 155-mm gun. Artillery position with wooden and earth barrier for the heavy gun. Open artillery position for the heavy 210-mm gun. Entrenchment for 220-mm howitzer with shelter for the crew. Position for 305-mm howitzer. Opened position for an automatic anti-aircraft gun. Part of a trench for inside defense. Preparation of communication trench for inside defense.
Machine-gun position for anti-aircraft fire. Position for anti-aircraft machine gun fire. Position for 50-mm mortar. Adjacent entrenchment for 81-mm mortar. Entrenchment for 81-mm mortar. Entrenchment for 120-mm mortar. Entrenchment for six-barrel mortar. Entrenchment for 37-mm gun.
Fire position with loophole. Fire summary positions, machine-gun positions. Machine-gun position with two ammo tables. Machine-gun position with crew shelter. Opened elevated position for a heavy machine gun. Machine-gun position in marshland area, made from earth bags. Entrenchment with three machine-gun nests. Machine-gun position for anti-aircraft and presentation ground fire.
Flanking fire position for guarding approaches to a machine-gun nest. Separate fire positions with dugout. Types of fire positions in wooded marshland. Fire position for kneeling riflemanr. Fire position for standing rifleman. Entrenchment for submachine gunners with shelter. Armored shields for submachine gunners and snipers. Multi-purpose position for anti-tank rifle and heavy machine gun with shelter for the crew, made from corrugated iron.
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Reinforced wire obstacle; 11). Panel, made from the wooden poles; 12). Dugout with camouflage wire net; 13). Wire barrier around responsible the dugout; 15). Clearance in the wood along the road; 17). Cross-section of a main defense belt.
Part of a first trench with communication trench. Cross-section of constructed trench. Cross-section of communication trench. Fire positions with shelter. Fire position inggris with canopy.
Chief of the karbyshev central Engineering Institute, general-major (Ponomash). Chief of the first Department kcei, colonel (Shterenberg). Chief of the 3d Branch of the first Department kcei, senior engineer (Konovalichin). Opened fire positions, trenches and communication trenches. First line of defense. Bruno spiral barbed wire; 3).
Bruno spiral barbed wire; 5). Reinforced wire obstacle; 6). Bruno spiral barbed wire; 7). Wire on low wooden poles; 8). Mines, controled from the machine-gun nest; 9). Camouflaged barrier and machine-gun nest; 10).
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The concept of a strong point was legs to a certain extent conditional and not rigidly anchored on terrain. Easy opportunity to develop trench system in any area and fast deployment of any fighting unit led to changes of the strong points outlines and even to their movements along the front and/or in depth. Under this fluid system, new strong point could be created quickly where it was needed and according changes in a battle situation. Germans applied different kinds of obstacles mainly revelation before first (main) trench. The fourth period was marked by german retreat on all fronts, sometimes degenerated into a flight. As far as field fortifications are concerned, during this last period Germans tried to take advantage of large natural barriers and prepared positions. They hastily fortified river banks and upgraded existing long-term lines of defense. Usually they didn't have enough time to create new lines. The drawings in this album correspond mostly with the third period, when Germans constructed their most developed field fortifications.
The third period begins with German transition to the strategic defense posture (1943). The victory of the soviet armies in Kursk battle discouraged Germans from any further offensive operations. Germans built their defense on well-thought, precisely organized system of fire from all kinds of weapons, on developing infantry positions with concentration in tactically important areas and on active actions of reserves. Defense was mainly based on ensuring tactical survivability and reliability of the system of fire, mostly before first essay line of defense and on the flanks, sheltering of soldiers and equipment, speedy maneuvers by reserves and weapons. The first line of defense, as a rule, was continuous trench, lavishly equipped with easy-to-construct opened fire positions. On the most tactically important directions, behind first line of trenches, second, third, and sometimes even fourth line of tranches were constructed. Continous trench system, equipped with elaborate fortifications, was especially well-developed in strong points areas, all iIntervals between strong points, as a rule, were also fortified, even in a lesser degree.
the soviet Army, germans were forced to pay more attention to the strengthening of their defensive positions. Rejecting the dominance of isolated guard posts they switched to the development of strong points systems and fortified centers of defense. Defensive lines were transformed to the networks of strengthened defensive positions and the strong points on top of the terrain heights, anchored on local settlements and located on distances 2-4 km from each other. Intervals were filled with machine-guns, rifle entrenchments and separate fire positions. Centers of defense and strong points had one or two lines of the main and communication trenches, with all kinds of firing positions, observation posts, as well as shelters and dugouts for soldiers and officers. All strong points were connected with each other by the well developed road networks, radial and lateral, which were providing opportunities for maneuver and bringing reserves from the depth. Such systems of defense, with articulated strong points and poorly protected intervals, also were not able to thwart soviet Army attacks, which were tactically based on deep flanking maneuvers.
The first period started from the beginning of night the war, when Germans, riding high on the wave of their initial success were not paying much attention to field fortifications. Defensive actions were limited by construction of the simple guard posts around settlements, railway stations and communication centers. This activity was aimed mostly for protection of communications from attacks of the isolated units of the soviet Army and emerging partisan movement. Moving during times of war was not an easy task. It is not like you can hire. Upack moving companies to help. Even today that is not an option when you are in war.
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German field Fortifications on the write eastern Front. Album of Drawings, foreword, this album was developed with a purpose to familiarize staff of the land forces with types and designs of field fortifications, which were used by the german defense. This album is based on the reports of Fronts Engineering Departments and various commissions, created under Chief of Military Engineering. The album contains 7 sections:. Preparing Local Environment for Defense. Anti-tank and Anti-personnel Obstacles. Principles and methods of German field fortifications were constantly changing along the course of the war on the eastern front. We may point to the four evolution periods of the german Army field fortifications.