"Energy balance for An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay." All Answers Ltd. Vref1 Accessed Reference copied to Clipboard. Energy balance for An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay internet. Accessed ; available from: p? Cite weblastEssays firstuk urlp? Vref1 titleEnergy balance for An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay m datenovember 2013 accessdate locationNottingham, uk reference copied to Clipboard.
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The efficiency of a diesel engine can be enhanced by at least 10-15 percent if combined with the modern technological devices, such as turbochargers and superchargers. Other clever techniques can also be used to improve the fuel efficiency and overall engine efficiency of the engine, such as direct injection, variable valve timing and cylinder deactivation. Unfortunately, from the very beginning the focus on an internal combustion engine has been on producing more power rather than providing a better fuel economy, but nowadays history due to growing awareness of environment and rising oil prices, engineers have shifted their attention on to producing. For example, bmw is researching on ways to increase the fuel efficiency of a conventional engine by 10-15 percent by looking to recover and reuse heat energy lost through the exhaust and that absorbed by the engine cooling system. With such initiatives we can see a future of more efficient and more environmentally friendly engines. Cite This Essay to export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: Essays,. Energy balance for An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay. Vref1 Reference copied to Clipboard. "Energy balance for An Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Essay.". Reference copied to Clipboard.
Superchargers also create better fuel efficiency by increasing the amount of oxygen available to an write engine's combustion chambers, because superchargers increase the power of the engine by utilising more oxygen, they do not require a larger engine and therefore also increase fuel efficiency by allowing. The biggest disadvantage of superchargers however, is that they steal some of the engine's horsepower. A supercharger can consume as much as 20 percent of an engine's total power output but also generates as much as 46 percent additional horsepower. Since, it generates more power than it requires, it is generally thought to be good option to increase engines efficiency. Conclusion diesel engines are a form of Internal Combustion Engines. They are very inefficient if working on their own. Generally about 25-30 percent energy is used in work and the rest is lost to surroundings.
Different valve timings produce different results (more power and or better fuel economy). Many modern engines can vary valve timing, allowing the default low rpm range of the engine to have more economical timing, and the higher rpm range to go for max power. Cylinder deactivation: Internal Combustion Engines, with this feature can simply deactivate some cylinders when less power is required, temporarily reducing the total volume of the engine cylinders and so burning less fuel. This feature is mostly found on V6 and V8 engines. Super Charger: reviews Superchargers increase the intake of air into the combustion chamber. This means, more air into the combustion chamber and with more air, more fuel can be added, and more fuel means a bigger explosion and greater horsepower. Adding a supercharger is a good way to increase the power of a normal-sized engine and thus making it more efficient.
There are many ways to improve the efficiency of a diesel engine, some are discussed below: Turbochargers: The purpose of a turbocharger is to compress the air flowing into the diesel engine, this lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder and more air. This allows the engine to burn more fuel producing more power and improves the overall efficiency of the combustion process, hence making the engine more efficient. However, the only disadvantage of a turbocharger is that, if it is in a car's engine it would take a few second to respond as the driver presses the pedal, this phenomenon is known as lag. Turbocharger suffers from lag because it takes a few moments before the exhaust gases reach a velocity that is sufficient to drive the impeller/turbine. Direct Injection: With direct injection, the diesel fuel is directly injected into the cylinder. Fuel is mixed with air inside the cylinder, allowing for better control over the amount of fuel used, and varies depending on demand. This makes the engine more fuel efficient. Before direct injection, the fuel was mixed with air in the car's intake manifold. Variable valve timing: Valves open and close to allow air and fuel to enter cylinders and for the products of combustion to exit.
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Energy balance: fuel Energy Input mf*lcv (1.78x10-4) x (43x106) 7654W Shaft Power Output 2139.42w cooling Water heat Transfer 2098W Exhaust heat Transfer 1700W Energy Transfer Qm-mf *FL.58W Efficiency nuseful work output fuel energy input 2139.42.95 (Useful Work) Energy to surroundings (Heat supplied in fuel. The modern petrol combustion engine operates at an average of roughly 20 to 30 percent thesis engine efficiency. The remaining 70 to 80 percent of the energy is humorous lost to the surroundings in form of exhaust heat, mechanical sound energy and friction. Diesel engines are a bit more efficient. The diesel engine uses high compression to ignite its fuel.
This higher compression compensates for the engines heat losses and results in roughly 40 percent engine efficiency. This engine efficiency is only observed by direct injection diesel engines (discussed later). Rest 60 percent energy, like the petrol engine is lost to the surroundings. The petter diesel engine which was the subject of this experiment showed a poor overall efficiency compared to an average diesel engine. The overall efficiency of the petter diesel engine was only.95 percent. The reason for such poor efficiency was that most of the energy was lost to surrounding, but that doesn't mean that the engine cannot me made more efficient. See figure 4 and 5 for the distribution of energy lost and utilised.
The engine was started and after waiting for the recommended time of ten minutes, all the readings were taken off gauges. A weight of 5kg was already placed onto the torque arm before starting the engine. Measurements such as fuel flow rate, cooling water flow-rate, spring balance, orifice plate pressure drop, speed gauge and electric thermometer were taken. Electric thermometer reading is divided into four parts, mentioned as follows: Exhaust temperature, cooling water inlet temperature, cooling water outlet temperature. Air inlet temperature After taking all the readings, engine was shut down and ear muffles were removed.
The readings taken off the gauges were then used to work out the energy balance for an internal combustion engine. Results measured property value units atmospheric Pressure 764 mmHg Engine Speed 1500 rpm Spring balance reading 15 n mass on torque arm 5 Kg Amount of fuel measured 20 ml Time to consume fuel 97 Seconds Relative density of fuel.864 - orifice plate pressure. Shaft power output torque* shaft rotational speed W(kg load -dial reading rt*N(rpm 2π/60 (5*9.81)-15*0.4*1500*2π/60 2139.42 Watts.13 10-3 kg/s. Fuel flow rate (20 10-3/1000) (864) Kg/s. Heat transfer rate to the cooling water (l/min 60 *.196* (Tout - tin) *4.196 75-69).098 kJ/s. Heat transfer to exhaust gases (6.24.70 kJ/s.
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The barometer gives readings in mmHg. Figure 3 shows the picture of barometer used in the experiment. Img_G, figure 2 Figure 3, experimental Procedure. The purpose remote of this experiment was to investigate the efficiency of a diesel engine. To start with the experiment, all the gauges on the apparatus were pre set to default readings and as essay a safety precaution all students were provided with ear muffles. Each individual group member was assigned a task by the module lecturer. My assigned task was to measure the oil and at the same time, time the engine as it consumed the set amount of diesel. Similarly other students were given tasks, which they carried on doing as the experiment progressed.
Heat transfer, (Qr is the sum of energy transferred to cooling water and energy lost to the surrounding from hot engine components, therefore we can werther write: Qr -dot mw Cpw ( tout - tin ) Qrn. Replacing all quantities in Eq1 we get: Symbols explained as follows: rate of heat energy transfer of system rate of the work done by the system (power) combustion air mass flow rate fuel mass rate specific enthalpy of products of combustion specific enthalpy of combustion. Apparatus, the Apparatus used in this experiment is mentioned as follows: Petter diesel Engine: A four stroke, single cylinder, 659cc petter diesel Engine was used to conduct the experiment. Figure 2 shows the picture of Petter diesel Engine used in the experiment. Ear Muffles: Ear muffles were used to protect the ears from the loud noise of the diesel engine; prolonged exposure to such loud noise without ear protection can lead to hearing impairment. Barometer: a barometer was used to measure the atmospheric pressure at the time of experiment. Atmospheric pressure was needed to calculate the mass flow rate.
air is compressed, causing its temperature to rise. At the end of the compression stroke, the air is hot enough to ignite fuel. Combustion stroke - as the piston reaches the top, fuel is injected at just the right moment and ignited, forcing the piston back down. Exhaust stroke - the piston moves back to the top, pushing out the exhaust created from the combustion out of the exhaust valve. Figure 1 f, eq1From the basic steady flow energy equation, using the air-cycle method, we may write. The value of can be approximated, closely, to:, cpe is taken as 1100J/KgK. It is convenient to replace by in order to make an allowance for the possibility of incomplete combustion. Where, fl, is the proportion of fuel energy that is not available because of incomplete combustion.
The pistons are connected to a crankshaft, and the up-and-down motion of the pistons, known as linear motion, creates the rotary motion needed to turn the wheels of a car forward. We are already aware of the fact that internal combustion engines have very low efficiencies, but the purpose of such experiment is to study where first and how the energy is used and lost. This would help us to improve the efficiency of the internal combustion engines where ever possible. Theory, both diesel engines and petrol engines convert fuel into energy through a series of small explosions or combustions. The major difference between diesel and petrol engines is the way these explosions happen. In a petrol engine, fuel is mixed with air, compressed by pistons and ignited by sparks from spark plugs. In a diesel engine, however, the air is compressed first, and then the fuel is injected, because as the air is compressed it heats up to around 400 deg;c, it is hot enough to ignite fuel.
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Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, the main objective of the experiment is to measure the energy list contributions to the diesel engine, which is treated as a thermodynamics system. The energy contributions that are not measured may then be estimated from an energy balance. There are two main, unmeasured energy contributions to identify. An energy loss from incomplete combustion, in which some of the fuel is not burned completely. An energy loss by heat transfer to the air surrounding hot engine components. Introduction, a petter four stroke diesel engine will be used to investigate the efficiency of a diesel engine. Diesel engines are internal combustion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in the fuel, into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy moves the pistons up and down inside cylinders.