12 When the Israelites migrated to canaan between 12 bce, they also adopted a variation of the canaanite alphabet. Baruch ben Neriah, jeremiah's scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. The early hebrew alphabet was prominent in the mediterranean region until Chaldean Babylonian rulers exiled the jews to babylon in the sixth century bce. It was then that the new script Square hebrew emerged and the older one rapidly died out. 11 The Aramaic alphabet also emerged sometime between 12 bce. As the Bronze age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts.
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Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts". 10 The consonantal system of the canaanite script inspired alphabetical developments in subsequent systems. During the late Bronze age, successor alphabets appeared throughout the mediterranean region and were employed for Phoenician, hebrew and Aramaic. According to goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their essay writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated. Eighth century bce, epigraphical comparisons to Proto-canaanite suggest that the Greeks may have adopted the consonantal alphabet as early as 1100 bce, and later "added in five characters to represent vowels". 11 Phoenician, which is considered to contain the first "linear alphabet", rapidly spread to the mediterranean port cities in northern Canaan. 10 Some archeologists believe that Phoenician scripture had some influence on the developments of the hebrew and Aramaic alphabets based on the fact that these languages evolved during the same time period, share similar features, and are commonly categorized into the same language group.
Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the canaanite goddess Asherah. In 1948, william. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to goody's findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts (written in an early canaanite dialect) paper that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet. Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century bce. According to Frank moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet.
These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used essay for management practices, and probably less than 1 of the population was literate, as it was confined to a very small ruling elite. Origins of the alphabet edit According to social anthropologist Jack goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system (c. 750 bce) that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. But goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia". 9 Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan (modern-day syria ) invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 bce. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem.
8 The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. 6 Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from bce and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 bce. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 bce. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.
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Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds ( phonology spelling patterns ( orthography word meaning ( semantics grammar ( syntax ) and patterns of word formation ( morphology all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency. Once these skills are acquired, the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed. 3 The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. 4 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( unesco ) defines literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society".
5 Contents History edit see also: History of writing and History of education Illiteracy rate in France in the 18th and 19th centuries Prehistoric literacy edit Origins of literacy edit literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices. Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, egypt, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. 6 Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, sumerian tablet, circa 2600 bc the earliest forms essay of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about bce. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". 7 Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural pdf production.
Reading and writing " redirects here. For the journal, see. Reading and, writing (journal). World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 cia. World Factbook ) Grey no data, world illiteracy halved between. Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write. 1, the modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. 2, the concept of literacy is expanding. Oecd countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. 2, a person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text.
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