People's attitude towards environment essay

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87 Out of respect for mikhail bakunin, they did not make their differences with collectivist anarchism explicit until after bakunin's death. 88 Syndicalism emerged in France inspired in part by the ideas of pierre-joseph Proudhon and later by fernand Pelloutier and georges Sorel. 89 It developed at the end of the 19th century out of the French trade-union movement ( syndicat is the French word for trade union). It was a significant force in Italy and Spain in the early 20th century until it was crushed by the fascist regimes in those countries. In the United States, syndicalism appeared in the guise of the Industrial Workers of the world, or "Wobblies founded in 1905. 89 Syndicalism is an economic system where industries are organised into confederations (syndicates) 90 and the economy is managed by negotiation between specialists and worker representatives of each field, comprising multiple non-competitive categorised units. 91 Syndicalism is thus a form of communism and economic corporatism, but also refers to the political movement and tactics used to bring about this type of system.

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Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the first International, there was conflict from the start. The first objections to marx came from the mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after mikhail bakunin extended and his followers (called collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the first International became polarised into two camps headed by marx and bakunin respectively. 85 The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The first International became the first major journals international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas. The followers of bakunin were called collectivist anarchists and sought to collectivise ownership of the means of production while retaining payment proportional to the amount and kind of labor of each individual. Like proudhonists, they asserted the right of each individual to the product of his labor and to be remunerated for their particular contribution to production. By contrast, anarcho-communists sought collective ownership of both the means and the products of labor. Errico malatesta put it: "Instead of running the risk of making a confusion in trying to distinguish what you and i each do, let us all work and put everything in common. In this way each will give to society all that his strength permits until enough is produced for every one; and each will take all that he needs, limiting his needs only in those things of which there is not yet plenty for every one". 86 Anarcho-communism as a coherent, modern economic-political philosophy was first formulated in the Italian section of the first International by carlo cafiero, emilio covelli, errico malatesta, andrea costa and other ex mazzinian republicans.

Because the commune was only able to meet on fewer than 60 days in all, only a few decrees were actually implemented. These included the separation of church and state ; revelation the remission of rents owed for the entire period of the siege (during which payment had been suspended the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries ; the granting of pensions to the. 83 The commune was concerned that skilled workers had been forced to pawn their tools during the war; the postponement of commercial debt obligations and the abolition of interest on the debts; and the right of employees to take over and run an enterprise. The commune nonetheless recognised the previous owner's right to compensation. 83 First International edit The International Workingmen's Association (iwa often called the first International, was founded in London in 1864. The International Workingmen's Association united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon, 84 Blanquists, philadelphes, english trade unionists, socialists and social democrats. The iwa held a preliminary conference in 1865 and had its first congress at Geneva in 1866.

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Citation needed west European social critics, including Robert Owen, charles fourier, pierre-joseph Proudhon, louis Blanc, charles Hall, and saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial revolution. They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property. Robert Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed. On the other hand, Charles fourier advocated phalansteres which were communities that respected individual desires (including sexual preferences affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people. 81 The ideas of Owen and fourier were tried in practice in numerous intentional communities around Europe and the American continent in the mid-19th century. Paris Commune edit The celebration of the election of the commune on —the paris Commune was a major early implementation of socialist ideas The paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally, from 28 March) to The commune was. The commune elections held on 26 March elected a commune council of 92 members, plan one member for each 20,000 residents. 82 Despite internal differences, the council began to organise the public services essential for a city of two million residents. It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular and highly-democratic social democracy.

77 The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent. Count Henri de saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term "socialism". 78 saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based on equal opportunities. he advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work. 78 The key focus of saint-Simon's socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism and a belief that science was the key to progress. This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress, 78 thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy. Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on david Ricardo 's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour—the cost of the labour (essentially the wages paid) that was required to produce the. The ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value.

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In the period right after the French revolution, activists and development theorists like françois-noël Babeuf, étienne-gabriel Morelly, philippe buonarroti and Auguste Blanqui influenced the early French labour and socialist movements. 70 In Britain, Thomas paine proposed a detailed plan to tax property owners to pay for the needs of the poor in Agrarian Justice 71 while Charles Hall wrote The Effects of civilization on the people in European States, denouncing capitalism's effects on the poor. 73 The first "self-conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s. The Owenites, saint-Simonians and fourierists provided a series of coherent analyses and interpretations of society. They also, especially in the case of the Owenites, overlapped with a number of other working-class movements like the Chartists in the United Kingdom".

74 The Chartists gathered significant numbers duties around the people's Charter of 1838, which demanded the extension of suffrage to all male adults. Leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes. The very first trade unions and consumers' cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands. 75 A later important socialist thinker in France was pierre-joseph Proudhon, who proposed his philosophy of mutualism in which "everyone had an equal claim, either alone or as part of a small cooperative, to possess and use land and other resources as needed to make. 76 There were also currents inspired by dissident Christianity of Christian socialism "often in Britain and then usually coming out of left liberal politics and a romantic anti-industrialism" 70 which produced theorists such as Edward Bellamy, frederick denison maurice and Charles Kingsley.

The Owenites in England and the fourierists in France were considered "respectable" socialists, while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne cabet in France and Wilhelm weitling in Germany. 56 The British moral philosopher John Stuart Mill also came to advocate a form of economic socialism within a liberal context. In later editions of his Principles of Political Economy (1848 mill would argue that "as far as economic theory was concerned, there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies". 57 58 While democrats looked to the revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.


59 History edit main article: History of socialism Early socialism edit main articles: Utopian socialism, revolutions of 1848, paris Commune, and History of anarchism  Early history socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. It has been claimed—though controversially—that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato 60 and Aristotle. 61 mazdak the younger (died. 524 or 528 ce a persian communal proto-socialist, 62 instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good. Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī, a companion of Prophet Muhammad, is credited by many as a principal antecedent of Islamic socialism. The teachings of Jesus the messiah of the Christian religion are frequently highlighted as socialist in nature. Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the uk labour Party and is said to be a tradition going back 600 years to the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball.

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The term "communism" also fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions paper between socialism friend and communism from the 1840s. 50 An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods). 51 However, marxists employed the term "socialism" in place of "communism" by 1888, which had come to be considered an old-fashion synonym for socialism. It was not until 1917 after the bolshevik revolution that "socialism" came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticisms that Russia's productive forces were. 52 A distinction between "communist" and "socialist" as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of Leninism, bolshevism and. 54 The words "socialism" and "communism" eventually accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word "communism" was too culturally and aurally close to the roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists. 55 Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The communist Manifesto was published, that "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not".

people's attitude towards environment essay

44 The term "socialism" was created by henri de saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would later be labelled " utopian socialism ". Simon coined "socialism" as a contrast to the liberal overpopulation doctrine of " individualism which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another. 45 The original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting. 45 They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly. Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organization of society. By contrast, robert Owen proposed the organization of production and ownership in cooperatives. 45 46 The term "socialism" is also attributed to pierre leroux 47 and to marie roch louis reybaud in France; and in Britain to robert Owen in 1827, father of the cooperative movement. 48 49 The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative "mutualist" and "associationist which had previously been used as synonyms.

socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. 34 s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. 36 by this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide. It is a political ideology (or world view a wide and divided political movement" 37 and while the emergence of the soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the soviet economic model, many economists and intellectuals argued. 41 42 Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism and liberalism. 43 Contents Etymology edit for Andrew Vincent, "the word socialism finds its root in the latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas. This latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen".

25 by contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. 27 28 The socialist calculation debate discusses the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. 13 In addition to the debate over markets and planning, the varieties of socialism differ in their form of social ownership, how management is to be organised within productive institutions and the role of the state in constructing socialism. 2 13 Core dichotomies include reformism versus roles revolutionary socialism and state socialism versus libertarian socialism. Socialist politics has been both centralist and decentralised; internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organised through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent of — and critical of — unions; and present in both industrialised. 29 While all tendencies of socialism consider themselves democratic, the term " democratic socialism " is often used to highlight its advocates' high value for democratic processes in the economy and democratic political systems, 30 usually to draw contrast to tendencies they may be perceived.

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For other uses, see, socialism (disambiguation). Socialism is a range of essay economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and workers' self-management of the means of production 10 as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity. 12, there are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, 13 though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. 5 14 15, socialist economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system.


People's attitude towards environment essay
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