Not only are they learning history, they are learning to be historians. Engaging students in historical research should begin with students exploring their own personal, family, or local history (Leigh reynolds, 1997; Schwartz, 2000). Students can do this by interviewing family and community members and creating oral histories — a type of primary source material in the study of history. Other source materials to use with oral histories could be physical artifacts such as photographs, journals, documents, and other materials that the subject of an oral history could provide (Barton, 2001; field, labbo, willhem, garret, 1996: Hickey, 1997). There are a variety of ways to use primary sources such as oral histories, documents, photographs, and artifacts in social studies education, but teachers should be mindful of using these in constructive and meaningful ways (Barton, 2005). Strategy, introduce oral histories by reading literature that is on a social studies topic to be explored, such as grandparents for young children, or that models the use of oral histories as a data collection method.
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Phillip shared that in emba 1937, when his father's grandfather was 13 years old, there was a terrible famine in fizhou on mainland China so the boy was put on a boat with his little sister, who was. They were told to get off when they reached Singapore and look for relatives. When the boat docked, they got off. It was not Singapore, however; it was taipei on the island of taiwan. The boat left, and the children stayed and had to fend for themselves. Phillip told the class that one of his goals was to learn Chinese so that he could learn more about his heritage from his family in taiwan. Oral history is a method to learn about past events from the spoken stories of people who lived through them. When students conduct oral history research with members of their families or community they are participating in what John Dewey (1938) called active learning, which could move to a "more objective intellectual scene of organization" (p. 82) rooted in the student's own page experience. Students are actively engaged in collecting data when they do oral histories.
Errors and Expectations: a guide for the teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford University Press. Creative with approaches to sentence combining. Urbana, il: eric and the national council of teachers of English. Lessons to Share on teaching Grammar in Context. About the author, beverly Ann Chin, professor of English at the University of Montana and past-president of the national council of teachers of English (ncte developed the new Grammar for Writing series to help prepare today's secondary students to meet the new standards called for. Copyright 2000 by william. The students in the 8th grade social studies class had all done a family oral history project where they interviewed family members. The teacher asked each one to share the most interesting thing they learned about their family.
"Grammar and Usage.". handbook of Research on teaching the English Language Arts. "Transformational Sentence-combining: a method for Enhancing the development of Syntactic Fluency in English Composition." ncte research Report. National council of teachers of English and the International reading Association. Standards for the English Language Arts. Grammar and the teaching of Writing: Limits and Possibilities. Sentence-combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar Instruction.
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While the standards acknowledge the importance of grammar concepts, they clearly recommend that students learn and apply grammar for the purpose of effective communication. By embedding grammar instruction in writing instruction, teachers can positively affect students' actual writing skills. National content standards, standard 4: Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes (p. Standard 5: Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes (p. Standard 6: Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts (p. "By closely observing students' writing processes and carefully reading their work, teachers can see which aspects of language structure are giving students trouble and help them learn these concepts through direct instruction and practice. It is also important for students to discover that grammar, spelling, and punctuation are useful not only in the context of fixing problems or mistakes; they can be studied effectively in a workshop context in which students work together to expand their repertoire of syntactic.
When students connect the study of grammar and language patterns to the wider purposes of communication and artistic development, they are considerably more likely to incorporate such study into their working knowledge" (p. References, braddock,., homework Lloyd-Jones,., schoer,. Research in Written Composition. Urbana, il: National council of teachers of English. "Research roundup: Oral and Written Composition." English journal, 64,. "An Experimental Inquiry into the functions and Value of Formal Grammar in the teaching of Written English to Children Aged Twelve to fourteen.". "Research on Written Composition: New Directions for teaching." Urbana, il: eric clearinghouse on reading and Communication skills and the national Conference on Research in English.
When students find these verbs, they read the sentence aloud to their partners and discuss whether the voice is passive and, if so, whether an active voice verb might strengthen the sentence. The student writer can then decide which voice is most effective and appropriate for the writing purpose and audience. Teachers can help students become better proofreaders through peer editing groups. Based on the writing abilities of their students, teachers can assign different proofreading tasks to specific individuals in each group. For example, one person in the group might proofread for spelling errors, another person for agreement errors, another person for fragments and run-ons, and another person for punctuation errors. As students develop increasing skill in proofreading, they become responsible for more proofreading areas.
Collaborating with classmates in peer editing groups helps students improve their own grammar skills as well as understand the importance of grammar as a tool for effective communication. As teachers integrate grammar instruction with writing instruction, they should use the grammar terms that make sense to the students. By incorporating grammar terms naturally into the processes of revising, editing, and proofreading, teachers help students understand and apply grammar purposefully to their own writing. Strategies such as writing conferences, partnership writing, grammar minilessons, and peer response groups are all valuable methods for integrating grammar into writing instruction. How does the teaching of grammar address the national content standards for students? The national council of teachers of English and the International reading Association (1996) published Standards for the English Language Arts, which defines "what students should know and be able to do with language" (p. The twelve content standards are closely intertwined and emphasize the complex interactions among language skills. Standards 4, 5, and 6 most directly address students' ability to write. The national content standards for English language arts are based on professional research and best classroom practices.
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In writing paper conferences, for example, teachers can help students revise for effective word choices. As the teacher and student discuss the real audience(s) for the writing, the teacher can ask the student to consider how formal or informal the writing should be, and remind the student that all people adjust the level of formality in oral conversation, depending. The teacher can then help the student identify words in his or her writing that change the level of formality of the writing. To help students revise boring, monotonous sentences, teachers might ask students to read their writing aloud to partners. This strategy helps both the partner and the writer to recognize when, for example, too many sentences begin with "It is" or "There are." Both the partner and the writer can discuss ways to vary the sentence beginnings. After the writer revises the sentences, the partner can read the sentences aloud. Then both can discuss the effectiveness of the revision. Teachers can help students edit from passive voice to active voice by presenting a minilesson. In editing groups, students can exchange papers and look for verbs that often signal the passive voice, such as was and been.
to read. Teachers can then ask different students to combine orally the short sentences in a variety of ways. By participating in oral and written sentence-combining activities, students better understand the ways in which sentence structure, usage, and punctuation affect meaning. When presented as a revising strategy, sentence-combining activities help students identify short, choppy sentences in their own writing, leading them to combine their ideas in more fluid and sophisticated ways. As students generate more complex sentences from shorter ones, they discover how the arrangement of phrases and clauses, for example, affects meaning and its impact on their readers. What strategies can teachers use to teach grammar in the context of writing? Grammar instruction is most naturally integrated during the revising, editing, and proofreading phases of the writing process. After students have written their first drafts and feel comfortable with the ideas and organization of their writing, teachers may wish to employ various strategies to help students see grammatical concepts as language choices that can enhance their writing purpose. Students will soon grow more receptive to revising, editing, and proofreading their writing.
Research also shows that sentence combining is more effective than freewriting in enhancing the quality of student writing (Hillocks, 1986). Hillocks and Smith (1991) show that systematic practice in sentence combining can increase students' knowledge of syntactic structures as well as improve the quality of their sentences, particularly when stylistic effects are discussed as well. Sentence-combining exercises can be either plan written or oral, structured or unstructured. Structured sentence-combining exercises give students more guidance in ways to create the new sentences; unstructured sentence-combining exercises allow for more variation, but they still require students to create logical, meaningful sentences. Hillocks (1986) reports that in many studies, sentence-combining exercises produce significant increases in students' sentence-writing maturity. Given Noguchi's (1991) analysis that grammar choices affect writing style, sentence combining is an effective method for helping students develop fluency and variety in their own writing style. Students can explore sentence variety, length, parallelism, and other syntactic devices by comparing their sentences with sentences from other writers. They also discover the decisions writers make in revising for style and effect.
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Rather than strive to teach all grammatical concepts to all students, teachers should prioritize and provide instruction on the grammatical elements that most affect their students' ability to write effectively. Teachers should also be sensitive to individual students' readiness to learn and apply grammatical concepts. How does sentence combining improve writing? Sentence combining is the strategy of joining short sentences into longer, more complex sentences. As students engage in sentence-combining activities, they learn how to vary sentence structure in order to change meaning and style. Numerous studies (Mellon, 1969; o'hare, 1973; cooper, 1975; Shaughnessy, 1977; Hillocks, 1986; Strong, 1986) show that the use of sentence combining is an effective method for improving students' writing. The value of sentence combining is most evident as students recognize the effect of sentence variety (beginnings, lengths, complexities) in their own writing. Hillocks (1986) states that "sentence combining practice provides writers with systematic knowledge of syntactic possibilities, the access to which allows them to sort through alternatives in their heads as well as on paper and to choose those which are most apt" (150).