Besides spreading the religion of Islam, the conquerers introduced written and spoken Arabic to the regions under their control. The Arabic language was a principal factor in uniting peoples who differed widely in ethnicity, language, and culture. In the early centuries of Islam, Arabic not only was the official language of administration but also was and has remained the language of religion and learning. The Arabic alphabet has been adapted to the Islamic peoples vernaculars just as the latin alphabet has been in the Christian-influenced West. The Arabic script was evolved probably by the 6th century ce from Nabataean, a dialect of Aramaic current in northern Arabia. The earliest surviving examples of Arabic before Islam are inscriptions on stone.
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One of the important languages to derive from Aramaic was Syriac. It was spoken over large areas to the north and east of Palestine, but the literature emerged from a strong national church of Syria centred in the city of Edessa. The development of Syriac scripts occurred from the 4th to the 7th century. Eastern Christendom was riddled with sects and heretical movements. After 431 the syriac friend language and script split into eastern and western branches. The western branch was called Serta and developed into two varieties, jacobite and Melchite. Vigorous in pen graphics, serta writing shows that, unlike the early Aramaic and Hebrew scripts, characters are fastened to a bottom horizontal. Modern typefaces used to print Syriac, which has survived as a language, have the same characteristic. Eastern Syriac script was called Nestorian after Nestorius, who led a secession movement from the Orthodox Church of byzantium that flourished in Persia and spread along trade routes deep into Asia. Anderson The Editors of Encyclopaedia britannica In the 7th and 8th centuries ce the Arab followers of Muhammad conquered territories stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to sindh (now in pakistan).
The earliest script to emerge from the dead sea writing was the early sefardic ( Spharadic with examples dating between. The Classic Sefardic hand appears between. The Ashkenazic style of Hebrew plan writing exhibits French and German Gothic overtones of the so-called black-letter styles ( see below Latin-alphabet handwriting: The black-letter, or Gothic, style 9th to 15th century ) developed to write western European languages in the late middle Ages. German black letter, with its double-stroked heads and feet, was difficult for the scribe. Hebrew scripts from this period exhibit some of the same complicated pen stroking and change of pen slant within individual characters. Some decorative qualities of medieval French writing are seen in this Hebrew script. Spread of Aramaic to the middle east and Asia aramaic was the mother of many languages in the middle east and Asia. Generally, the canaanite-Phoenician influence spread west from Palestine, while Aramaic became an international language spreading east, south, and north from the eastern end of the mediterranean sea. Never sponsored by great political power, the Aramaic script and language succeeded through inherent efficiency and because the Aramaeans were vigorous traders and extensive travelers in the millennium preceding the common Era.
The traditional square hebrew, or merubba, pen hand was developed in the centuries preceding the common Era. This early script may be seen in the famed dead sea scrolls discovered in 1947. These scrolls are associated with a group of dissident Jews who founded a religious commune on the northwestern shore of the dead sea about 180 bce. The commune had an extensive library. Pens were the instruments of writing, and, as in earlier Aramaic documents, leather provided the surface. In these documents the lamed form remained visually prominent. There are no hebrew manuscripts from the first 500 years of the common Era. Most of the development in the square hebrew script occurred between.
Coptic alphabet - wikipedia
There were no vowel signs. The tribes of Canaan (. Hebrews, phoenicians, and, aramaeans ) were important in the development of alphabetic writing, and all seemed to be employing the alphabet by 1000 bce. The Phoenicians, living along a 20-mile (30-kilometre) strip on private the mediterranean, made the great sea their second home, giving the alphabet to Greeks in the mutual trading area and leaving inscriptions in many sites. One of the finest Phoenician inscriptions exists on a bronze cup from Cyprus called the baal of Lebanon (in the louvre, paris) dating from about 800 bce. The so-called moabite Stone (also in the louvre which dates from about 850 bce, has an inscription that is also a famous example of early semitic writing. Old Hebrew Old Hebrew existed in inscription form in the early centuries of the 1st millennium bce.
The pen-written letter forms of the Old Hebrew alphabet are best preserved in the 13th-century-ce documents of the samaritan sects. The exile suffered by the Israelites (586538 bce) dealt a heavy blow to the hebrew language, since, after their return from exile, aramaic was the dominant language of the area, and Hebrew existed as a second and scholarly language. Aramaic pen-written documents began to appear in the 5th century bce and were vigorous interpretations of inscription letters. Typically, in the surviving documents, the pen was cut wide at the tip to produce a pronounced thick and thin structure to the line of letters. The writers hand was rotated counterclockwise more than 45 degrees relative to vertical, so that vertical strokes were thinner than the horizontal ones. Then, too, there was a tendency to hold these strong horizontals on the top line, with trailing descenders finding a typical length, long or short on the basis of ancient habits. The lamed form, which has the same derivation as the western l, resembles the latter and can be picked out in early Aramaic pen hands by its characteristic long ascender.
Printing and handwriting began to influence each other: for example, modern advertising continues to incorporate calligraphy, and many calligraphers have through the years designed typefaces for printing. Ray nash, robert Williams, during the 2nd millennium bce, various Semitic peoples at the eastern end of the mediterranean were experimenting with alphabetic writing. Between 15 bce, alphabetic signs found in scattered sites showed a correspondence of form and provided material for sound translations. Bodies of writing from this period are fragmented: a few signs scratched on sherds or cut in stone. Few of these are celebrated in terms of aesthetic value.
One interesting set of Semitic inscriptions was discovered in 1905 at an ancient mining site on the. A sphinx from that discovery yields the taw, nun, taw, or t, n, t, meaning gift. It is evident that the nun, or n, sign is a rendering of a serpent. Most of the early. Semitic alphabetic signs were similarly derived from word signs of more ancient vintage. The several Semitic peoples in the middle east area spoke languages that were closely related, and this enabled them to use the same set of alphabetic signs. After some experimentation the alphabet was reduced to 22 signs for consonants.
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Nonetheless, after the introduction of printing in Europe in the mid-15th century, a clear distinction arose between handwriting and more elaborate forms of scripts and lettering. In fact, new words meaning calligraphy entered most European languages about the end of the 16th century, and in English the word calligraphy did not appear plan until 1613. Writing books from lined the 16th century through the present day have continued to distinguish between ordinary handwriting and the more decorative calligraphy. It has often been assumed that the printing process ended the manuscript tradition. This is not quite true: for example, most of the surviving books of hours (lavish private devotional manuscript books) date from the period after the introduction of printing. Furthermore, certain types of publications, such as musical scores, scientific notation, and other specialized or small-audience works, continued to be handwritten well into the 19th century. Thus, although handwritten books could not be reproduced in quantity or with complete uniformity, they did survive the introduction of printing.
There are 8 categories including the young volunteer award, trustee award and long service award. And an internal event, volunteer Garden Party, we also have a writing team of fantastic volunteers ourselves who we couldn't forget so we'll also be holding our own volunteer party to thank them for their continued support. Calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting. The term may derive from the Greek words for beauty ( kallos ) and to write ( graphein ). It implies a sure knowledge of the correct form of letters—i. E., the conventional signs by which language can be communicated—and the skill to make them with such ordering of the various parts and harmony of proportions that the experienced, knowledgeable eye will recognize such composition as a work of art. Calligraphic work, as art, need not be legible in the usual sense of the word. In the, middle east and East Asia, calligraphy by long and exacting tradition is considered a major art, equal to sculpture or painting. In Western culture the plainer Greek- and Latin-derived alphabets and the spread of literacy have tended to make handwriting in principle an art that anyone can practice.
dont really know what volunteering might be like or how to choose a role please let them know about this! Volunteer Centre Drop-In - wednesday 7th June (10.30-12.30) at the bvsc office. This is another opportunity for people who might want to volunteer but dont really know what they might want to get involved with. . Anyone interested in volunteering is welcome to pop in for a one to one meetings with. We can also offer extra support to anybody with a mental health issue or learning disability. . There is no need to book - people can just call in, so again, do pass this on to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. Volunteer Awards - wednesday 7th June. This year's Bexley volunteer Awards will be held at the marriott Hotel, bexleyheath starting.30pm. . we want to recognise the amazing volunteers in the borough so are inviting local people to nominate special volunteers for an award. .
We are holding our next fair between 12pm and 2pm at Geddes Place Church in fuller Bexleyheath. . This is a chance for local organisations to meet local people interested in volunteering. Community celebration day - saturday 3rd June. We are hosting a community celebration day to celebrate the thriving community and voluntary sector in Bexley. . There will be fun for all the family in Bexleyheath town centre between 10am and 4pm, with stalls, fun games, music and dance from local voluntary groups there will be lots to see and. . All of the activities will be run by local voluntary groups and organisations to give residents a chance to find out more about the valuable work that they. We are promoting community action and showcasing the range of amazing services available to bexley residents, as well as thanking them for the difference they make to the lives of local people and communities. Preparing for Volunteering Training - tuesday 6th June (9.45-12.00). This is a free session for people interested in volunteering.
History of the Arabic alphabet - wikipedia
Submitted by on Mon, 05/22/2017 - 11:23. At the volunteer Centre were gearing up for. The week is a national celebration and promotion of diary volunteering that runs from 1-7 June every year. Are you doing anything for Volunteers week? Were always happy to promote any news or events from local organisations. If you want to see full details of what were up to see our. Volunteers week page, but heres a quick run down: Volunteer fair - friday 2nd June.