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20 Church leaders pondered promises made by prophets such as Brigham young that black members would one day receive priesthood and temple blessings. In June 1978, after spending many hours in the Upper room of the salt lake temple supplicating the lord for divine guidance, church President Spencer. Kimball, his counselors in the first Presidency, and members of the quorum of the Twelve apostles received a revelation. He has heard our prayers, and by revelation has confirmed that the long-promised day has come, the first Presidency announced on June. The first Presidency stated that they were aware of the promises made by the prophets and presidents of the Church who have preceded us that all of our brethren who are worthy may receive the priesthood. 21 The revelation rescinded the restriction on priesthood ordination. It also extended the blessings of the temple to all worthy latter-day saints, men and women. The first Presidency statement regarding the revelation was canonized in the doctrine and covenants as Official Declaration.

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In south Africa, president Mckay reversed a prior policy that required prospective priesthood holders to trace their lineage out of Africa. 15 nevertheless, given the long history of withholding the priesthood from men of black African descent, Church leaders believed that a revelation from God was needed to alter the policy, and they made ongoing efforts to understand what should be done. After praying for guidance, president Mckay did not feel impressed to lift the ban. 16 As the Church grew worldwide, its overarching mission to go ye therefore, and teach all nations 17 seemed increasingly incompatible with the priesthood and temple restrictions. The book of Mormon declared that the gospel message of salvation should go forth to every nation, kindred, tongue, and people. 18 While there were no limits on whom the lord invited to partake of his goodness through baptism, 19 the priesthood and temple restrictions created significant barriers, a point made increasingly evident as the Church spread in international locations with diverse and mixed racial heritages. Brazil in particular presented many challenges. Unlike the United States and south Africa where legal and de facto racism led to deeply segregated societies, Brazil prided itself on its open, integrated, and mixed racial heritage. In 1975, the Church announced that a temple would be built in são resume paulo, brazil. As the temple construction proceeded, Church authorities encountered faithful black and mixed-ancestry mormons who had contributed financially and in other ways to the building of the são paulo temple, a sanctuary they realized they would not be allowed to enter once it was completed. Their sacrifices, as well as the conversions of thousands of Nigerians and Ghanaians in the 1960s and early 1970s, moved Church leaders.

Removing the restriction, even after 1852, at least two black mormons continued to hold the priesthood. When one of these men, Elijah Abel, petitioned to receive his temple endowment in 1879, his request was denied. Jane manning James, a father's faithful black member who crossed the plains and lived in Salt lake city until her death in 1908, similarly asked to enter the temple; she was allowed to perform baptisms for the dead for her ancestors but was not allowed. 13 The curse of cain was often put forward as justification for the priesthood and temple restrictions. Around the turn of the century, another explanation gained currency: blacks were said to have been less than fully valiant in the premortal battle against Lucifer and, as a consequence, were restricted from priesthood and temple blessings. 14 by the late 1940s and 1950s, racial integration was becoming more common in American life. Church President david. Mckay emphasized that the restriction extended only to men of black African descent. The Church had always allowed Pacific Islanders to hold the priesthood, and President Mckay clarified that black fijians and Australian Aborigines could also be ordained to the priesthood and instituted missionary work among them.

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In two speeches delivered before the Utah territorial legislature in year January and February 1852, Brigham young announced a policy restricting men of black African descent from priesthood ordination. At the same time, president young said that at some future day, black Church members would have all the privilege and more enjoyed by other members. 9, the justifications for this restriction echoed the widespread ideas about racial inferiority that had been used to argue for the legalization of black servitude in the territory of Utah. 10, according to one view, which had been promulgated in the United States from at least the 1730s, blacks descended from the same lineage as the biblical cain, who slew his brother Abel. 11, those who accepted this view believed that Gods curse on cain was the mark of a dark skin. Black servitude was sometimes viewed as a second curse placed upon noahs grandson Canaan as a result of Hams professional indiscretion toward his father. 12, although slavery was not a significant factor in Utahs economy and was soon abolished, the restriction on priesthood ordinations remained.

7, a generation after the civil War (186165) led to the end of slavery in the United States, the. Supreme court ruled that separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional, a decision that legalized a host of public color barriers until the court reversed itself in 1954. 8, not until 1967 did the court strike down laws forbidding interracial marriage. In 1850, the. Utah Territory, and the. President appointed Brigham young to the position of territorial governor. Southerners who had converted to the Church and migrated to Utah with their slaves raised the question of slaverys legal status in the territory.

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4, in 1852, President Brigham young publicly announced that essay men of black African descent could no longer be ordained to the priesthood, though thereafter blacks continued to join the Church through baptism and receiving the gift of the holy Ghost. Following the death of Brigham young, subsequent Church presidents restricted blacks from receiving the temple endowment or being married in the temple. Over time, church leaders and members advanced many theories to explain the priesthood and temple restrictions. None of these explanations is accepted today as the official doctrine of the Church. The Church in an narrative American Racial Culture.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints was restored amidst a highly contentious racial culture in which whites were afforded great privilege. In 1790, the. Congress limited citizenship to free white persons. 5, over the next half century, issues of race divided the country—while slave labor was legal in the more agrarian south, it was eventually banned in the more urbanized North. Even so, racial discrimination was widespread in the north as well as the south, and many states implemented laws banning interracial marriage. 6, in 1857, the. Supreme court declared that blacks possessed no rights which the white man was bound to respect.

Those realities, though unfamiliar and disturbing today, influenced all aspects of peoples lives, including their religion. Many Christian churches of that era, for instance, were segregated along racial lines. From the beginnings of the Church, people of every race and ethnicity could be baptized and received as members. Toward the end of his life, church founder. Joseph Smith openly opposed slavery.


There has never been a churchwide policy of segregated congregations. 3, during the first two decades of the Churchs existence, a few black men were ordained to the priesthood. One of these men, Elijah Abel, also participated in temple ceremonies in Kirtland, Ohio, and was later baptized as proxy for deceased relatives in nauvoo, illinois. There is no reliable evidence that any black men were denied the priesthood during Joseph Smiths lifetime. In a private Church council three years after Joseph Smiths death, Brigham young praised. Walker Lewis, a black man who had been ordained to the priesthood, saying, we have one of the best Elders, an African.

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Latter-day saints attend Church services according to the geographical boundaries of their local ward, or congregation. By definition, this means that the racial, economic, and demographic composition of Mormon congregations generally mirrors that of the wider local community. 2, the Churchs lay ministry also tends to facilitate integration: a black bishop may preside over a mostly london white congregation; a hispanic woman may be paired with an Asian woman to visit the homes of a racially diverse membership. Church members of different races and ethnicities regularly minister in one anothers homes and serve alongside one another as teachers, as youth leaders, and in myriad other assignments in their local congregations. Such practices plan make the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints a thoroughly integrated faith. Despite this modern reality, for much of its history—from the mid-1800s until 1978—the Church did not ordain men of black African descent to its priesthood or allow black men or women to participate in temple endowment or sealing ordinances. The Church was established in 1830, during an era of great racial division in the United States. At the time, many people of African descent lived in slavery, and racial distinctions and prejudice were not just common but customary among white Americans.

essay on it

Pen graphic courtesy of Animated. Privacy policy we collect no information from visitors to this site. We respect your and your children's privacy and urge children to check for a privacy policy at any site that asks them for any information about themselves. In theology and practice, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints embraces the universal human family. Latter-day saint scripture and teachings affirm that God loves all of His children and makes salvation available to all. God created the many diverse races and ethnicities and esteems them all equally. Book of Mormon puts the it, all are alike unto god. 1, the structure and organization of the Church encourage racial integration.

Many other sites have additional information about writing an essay, including information about more complex issues such as handling citations and bibliographies. View links to additional essay resource sites. If you have questions or comments about this page, please email. Last Updated: 25-June-2012 This site created by kathy livingston Email me all Rights Reserved Zebra alphabet courtesy of WebDiner.

If you presentation follow a few simple steps, you will find that the essay almost writes itself. You will be responsible only for supplying ideas, which are the important part of the essay anyway. Don't let the thought of putting pen to paper daunt you. You may download. Pdf formatted file containing these instructions which can then be easily printed. Please freely duplicate this material for personal use or for non-commercial classroom purposes. Any use of this material for other than non-commercial personal or classroom purposes is expressly forbidden without the prior written consent of the author.

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Home, topic, outline, thesis, thesis body, introduction, conclusion. Finish, sample, links, french Version, translated by dallas Wingo, german Version, translated by tom Rodriguez. Spanish Version, translated by Kristine bernhard de Arriola. If you find this site helpful, make a small donation to help defray the hosting costs. Check out my other educational site: Shakespeare's, julius caesar, visit my home page. An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. You may be writing an essay to argue for a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary to complete a task. Either way, your essay will have the same basic format.


Essay on it
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